You will prepare and submit a term paper on Geotechnical Engineering, Grouting. Your paper should be a minimum of 3000 words in length. Grouts are pressure-injected into the soil at closely spaced intervals. They are referred to as grout curtains, simply because their spacing is such that each ‘pillar’ of grout is intersected with the next, forming a continuous wall or curtain. Grouting is the filling of the fluid material by applying pressure, to the structural and lithological defects caused by the drilled hole. Materials used for grouting include hydraulic cement, clays, bentonite, and silicates. These materials are however prone to cracking may be chemically incompatible or may not be durable. To counter these weaknesses, polymer grouts are used because they are impermeable to gases, liquids. resist radiation, acidic and alkaline environments. The grouts are injected with grouting jets, which usually use a high-pressure fluid stream for the erosion of a cavity in the soil. The main reason for grouting is to form a more competent and less permeable parent soil or rock (Johnson 2008: 945-950). To exhaustively discuss the use of grout curtains in water retention dams, Cindra dam in Turkey will be used as the main reference dam, where its construction will be discussed at length more so focusing on the grout curtains (Devrim & Yeşđl 2008: 4039-4047).
It is built on the Menderes River located in the northwest of Guney District. The dam is used both for irrigation and generation of energy, where it produces 88GWh/year. Cindra dam is the first one built using RCC (Roller compacted handful) (Devrim & Yeşđl 2008: 4039-4047).
In the construction of any dam, considerations have to be made on the permeability and the mechanical physical properties of the mica-schist and the lime schist which are the bedrock, the thickness as well as the permeability of the talus and alluvium. Schistosity planes are irregular and are characterized by calcite and quartzite veins. The veins have different thickness values, which may range .between 5cm- 2m.