First of all, it would be advantageous to mention some formal points about the movie in question. Thus, it was directed by Mel Gibson. One should point out that this movie is the first movie when he was a director, a producer and a writer, suggesting that Gibson contributed a considerable amount of his creative energy into this particular work of art (Garber 125). The movie was shot over the year 2003 and mainly setting was in various places in Italy. The majority of the movie was shot at Cinecittà Studios in Rome, while some scenes that took place outdoors were shot in Matera, a rather old city, and Craco, the ghost town quite suitable for several scenes (Teague 184).
Speaking of the historical context that is presented in the movie, it would not be a mistake to point out that it shows the life of a Roman province Judea. In spite of the fact that there is a discussion about the precise dating of the life of Jesus Christ, one might state that the film in question focuses primarily on the last hours of his life. That is why taking this into account, one may conclude that the events that are being depicted in the movie happen around 33 Common Era.
The question of sources that the movie is based on is open for discussion. The producer claims that the Bible, not only the Old Testament but different parts of the one also were used in the course of narration (Corley 92). In addition to that, several parts of Tanakh were referred to. What is more important is that the movie tried to recreate some of the most easily recognizable iconographic elements that are associated with the life of Jesus Christ. Finally, Catholic devotional writings particularly the one which was written by Anne Catherine Emmerich about the last days of Jesus were used as inspiration for the aesthetics of the movie (Leonard 152). Therefore, one might conclude that the movie is based on both the religious texts as well as other spiritual works.