WHY DID GERMANY LOSE WW1 Germany lost WW1 due to a variety of military, socio-economic & political, and strategic reasons. The war itself continued for 4 years, inflicting various casualties and economic hardships on Germany. The most important reason why Germany lost WW1 were its incompetence to carry out it’s various strategies – originating from the first strategic failure, the failure of the Schlieffen Plan. The military incompetence of Germany on land and in sea was also an important cause leading to their loss in WW1.
Germany’s socio-economic condition and the incompetence of the political system in dealing with it was another important cause resulting in Germany’s loss in WW1. Thus, there were various reasons as to why Germany lost WW1, all of which had the same theme – the incompetence of Germany in various areas – that led them to lose WW1. INCOMPETENCE TO CARRY OUT IT’S VARIOUS STRATEGIES: Schlieffen Plan failure [Schlieffen Plan was supposed to take france by surprise by german attack coming from north instead of the metz area of Germany. Germany was to go through Belgium and then sweep around paris – which would surrender.
Vardun = attacked = surrender. After france = beaten, germant would beat estern front] Russia mobilises quicker than expected [eastern front instead of Belgium – troops were sent. Belgium, therefore Britain entered the waron 4 august. No british intervention allowance. Decided to defend mons] british slow germans down [guns; machine guns thought. German advance was delayed. went south instead of north underestimated: amount of time they’d need, Russian military, alliance between france and Britain Battle of the Marne – France wins under Joffre September 1914
France not knocked out, not a short war, full scale war on two fronts for Germans War of Movement = over – trenches created; now led to stalemate STALEMATE CREATED MILITARY INCOMPETENCE: Sea Battle of Falkland islands = Britain wipes out Germany; warships > Pacific Fleet Battle of Jutland 31 May 1916 – High Seas Fleet vs Royal Navy. RN won turned to U-Boat Camapgin; all ships entering the war-zone around Britain were liable to attack USA declared war on Germany in 6 Apr 1917 convoy system, echo-sounders, depth-chargers, Q-ships [merchant ships which was actually powered by the RN] – used to defeat U-Boats Land ble to make advancements in trenches Vardun – Feb 1916 – 280,00 Germans dead, lost heavily Battle of the Somme – July 1 to Nov 1916 [by Brits]. Relieve pressure on France in Verdun. Take over trench line as F weakened. Blow to German morale – caused them to lose finally. Britain was a military power to be reckoned with. 650,000 dead. Spring 1918 Offensive – last desperate attempt to win the war; thros in extra troops from Eastern front; broke through on the Somme in march 1918 and by end of May were 40 miles from Paris – caused the Allied Counter Offensive in 8 Aug
SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION AND INCOMPETENCE OF POLITIAL SYSTEM IN DEALING WITH IT: beginning of war = Naval blockade from 1915 till 1916 = faced HARDSHIPS KRA War Materials office in 1914 – employed company to act on behalf of govt in buying, storing and manufacturing materials – directed labour force and decided which jobs expempted men from military service social tensions as industrial workers gained a lot, ad they were in charge no national income tax, limited revenue, unequal income distribution could only cover 16% of it’s costs through tax 918 = Brest Litovsk treaty; access to resources but harshness = allies didn’t like – determined to make them lsoe and pay food shortages & inflation recession. Total war ALLIED VICTORY AND UNITY: 1915 = year of allied failure superior command; unity Brest-Litovsk Treaty in 1917 – Eastern Front = won