U7D1-28 – Q&A for Six Peer-Reviewed Articles -Exploring Program Hypothesis, Design, and Intervention. **PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS AS OUTLINED AND ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS** Materials attached. Read all details below.

Article Search
Because the literature search plays an essential part in this unit and your final assignment, search the literature to gather six additional peer-reviewed articles that can support the theoretical foundation of the topic for your public needs 
assessment project. You can use the Databases A–Z library guide for searching the articles. You will use these articles in this unit’s discussion and assignment as well as in the final assignment.

Unit 7 Discussion 1 – Exploring Program Hypothesis, Design, and Intervention

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Based on the six peer-reviewed articles you located in this unit’s study:

1. Determine the etiological analysis of the SAFs

2. Identify at least three problem-solving models that can underpin your public needs assessment project. 

3. Provide a rationale and justification as to which of the identified problem-solving models is an appropriate model for the facilitation of the etiological analysis you would use in tackling the SAF for your public needs assessment project.

4. Describe how information derived from the articles can help you in designing the conceptualization of measurable action plan for your public needs assessment project. 

5. Draft an example of the overall goal, it must include the following
      a. two  or more outcome objectives
      b. two or more process objective
      c. two or more program or project hypothesis
      d. two to three activities.

Readings

Note: Be certain to read the unit introduction, as it may contain important information and references pertaining to this unit’s content and activities.

Use your Designing and Managing Programs text to complete the following:

Read Chapter 2, “The Contribution of Theory to Program Planning,” pages 23–33.
Read Chapter 6, “Selecting the Appropriate Intervention Strategy,” pages 89–105.
Read Chapter 7, “Setting Goals and Objectives,” pages 107–128.
Read Chapter 8, “Designing Effective Programs,” pages 129–160.

Transcript – Steps for Program Planning – Must Read

Effective needs-based program planning is crucial and highly responsive to the project intervention strategies needed to bring about the systems changes. 
Needs-based program planning is a precursor for ensuring the efficiency and effectiveness of the instrumentality frameworks that undergird an action-oriented research project. It provides a framework for setting priorities and objectives, and establishing schedules for program activities by ensuring the best
use of time for the facilitation of the public needs assessment and planning processes to bridge the gaps that implicate systems changes. Also, program planning can be used to focus on outcomes. The diagram in the Steps for Program
Planning media provides a brief description of the program planning steps.

INTRODUCTION – Needs-Based Program Planning, Theoretical Foundation, and Project Intervention

Undergirding an action-oriented research project are the instrumentality frameworks such as programs, service delivery systems, projects, social interventions, policy actions, action plan implementations, social change agents, community crusaders, regulations, and government legislative arsenals. These are among the many mechanisms for which the public needs assessment and planning processes may be utilized to bridge the gaps that implicate systems changes.

However, the SAFs that implicate such systems changes may also reflect certain deficiencies, dysfunctions, or needs-based issues inherent within the instrumentality frameworks themselves. It thus follows that without an etiological analysis of the SAF, the factors associated with the condition inherent within the instrumentality frameworks can impede the context of responsive
intervention strategy needed to bring about the systems changes.

The etiological analysis is conceived to be facilitated by two sets of sub-assumptions: (a) a hypothesis of etiology that delineates cause-and-effect relationships and (b) a working intervention hypothesis in which the interventions are based on the causes in the hope that their implementations can implicate the effects so as to bring about positive systems changes.

Ideally, because the instrumentality frameworks are embedded in theory-driven outcomes, the etiological analysis is also expected to be structured by at least two levels of theoretical foundations: (a) theory of and (b) theory in. Operating in tandem, the theory of is more focused on the processes, steps, strategies, interventions, or activities used in tackling the SAF while the theory in is mainly focused on gaining an understanding of the factors associated with the condition of the SAF and the problem solving model intended to help better facilitate the processes or activities of the public needs assessment project.

However, the action processes must not only be facilitated by the theoretical foundations, but also be determined by needs based planning processes associated with the instrumentality frameworks. Thus, although four types of planning processes have been identified—strategic planning, management planning, program planning, and asset planning or asset mapping/capacity
building, each and all of the instrumentality frameworks can be aligned with their unique planning processes. The review of the literature is thus imperative to aid in identifying the theoretical foundations associated with the designing of the needs-based program planning processes, coupled with the description of the problem-solving model, and their responsive project intervention strategies.

Typically, designing the needs-based program planning processes and responsive project intervention strategies, require the conceptualization of measurable action plan, which involve the description of the overall goal, outcome objectives, process objectives, program or project hypotheses, and activities. The action plan itself provides a depiction of the program or project concept, design, and description of the SAF as a basis for underscoring the resolution to the hypothesized needs-based issues or needs assessment planning issues. The overall goal is the desired systems changes of the SAF that you intend to achieve through the measurable action plan. Thus, the overall goal of a program or project will help determine where the program or project action is headed.

The program or project hypotheses are formulated by the use of if–then statements to provide the propositions or assumptions that underpin the predictable relationships between the means (that is, the process objectives and activities or strategies) and ends (that is, the outcome objectives and overall goal) structuring an action variable of interests. Outcome objectives (that is, the
objectives structuring the ends) focus on results, expected changes in the condition of the needs-based SAF. The process objectives (that is, the objectives structuring the means) focus on the steps, expected action-oriented milestones hoped to help in bringing about the change in the condition of the needs-based SAF. The program or project activities (that is, the intervention strategies that are expected to be responsive to inducing the change in the SAF) focus on the things, processes, procedures, and systems, the strategic ways or means by which we hope to achieve the results.

OBJECTIVES
To successfully complete this learning unit, you will be expected to:
1. Understand the instrumentality framework of public needs assessment planning processes that can underscore an action-oriented research project.
2. Examine how situational analysis frameworks can implicate the instrumentality frameworks on systems changes.
3. Explore the theoretical foundations for determining the etiological analysis and problem-solving model that can underpin the public needs assessment and planning project.
4. Apply validated needs assessment processes to ensure public participation in a government decision on a needs assessment project.
5. Examine how the application of etiological analysis and problem-solving model can shape needs-based assumptions and planning processes associated with the instrumentality frameworks.
6. Explore the formulation of program or project hypotheses, needs-based program planning processes, and responsive project intervention strategies.
7. Apply the conceptualization of measurable action plan in designing and describing the overall goal, outcome objectives, process objectives, program or project hypotheses, and activities.

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