Type of mass media Mass media are media, which can be used to communicate and interact with a large number of audiences. Be it the pictorial messages of the early ages, or the high-technology media that are available today, one thing that we all agree upon, is that mass media are an inseparable part of our lives. Entertainment and media always go hand in hand, but in addition to the entertainment, mass media also remain to be an effective medium for communication, dissemination of information, advertising, marketing and in general, for expressing and sharing views, opinions and ideas.
Mass media is a double-edged sword which means that there are positive effects of the media as well as negative influences of media. The print media includes newspapers, magazines, brochures, newsletters, books and even leaflets and pamphlets. Visual media like photography can also be mentioned under this sub-head, since photography is an important mass media, which communicates via visual representations. Although, it is said that the electronic or new media have replaced the print media, there exists a majority of audiences who prefer the print media for various communication purposes.
Public speaking and event organizing can also be considered as a form of mass media. Apart from that, electronic media to many people, it is impossible to imagine a life without their television sets, be it the daily news dose or even the soap operas. This mass media includes television and radio. This category also includes electronic media like movies, CDs and DVDs as well as the new hottest electronic gadgets. While new-age media, with the advent of new technologies like Internet, we are now enjoying the benefits of high technology mass media, which is not only faster than the old-school mass media, but also has a widespread range.
Mobile phones, computers and Internet are often referred to as the new-age media. Internet has opened up several new opportunities for mass communication which include email, websites, blogging, Internet , television and many other mass media which are booming today. How does the modern mass media generate an influence on the society? Therefore, we must understand that mass media in statistics show that there are few things which impact the human mind more than mass media. The advice of teachers, parents and relatives may fall on deaf ears, but the mass media holds us all spellbound!
At this point, it becomes necessary to define this concept. It may be defined as any form of communication which is meted out to the people at large, through the various forms of communication. What modes of communication are we talking about? Well there can be no static definition for the channels of mass communication as they are increasing all the time. But any form of communication which is seen and understood by a large mass of people can be taken to mean mass communication or media channels. Mass media holds a kind of mystique in the minds of the people.
It is because the communication is designed in such a way that it appeals to a larger demographic segment. The test of a good mass communication marketing drive is to see if it gets the people talking. If it does, then not only does it mean that the advertising drive has been successful, but the organization in charge of the mass communication is also getting publicity by the word-of-mouth channel. PRINT MEDIA Print media includes many different ways in which an advertiser can reach a target group. Here are some of the different types of print media.
The modern advertising techniques make use of many ways to convey messages to the consumers. Print media however, is one of the oldest forms of advertising methods. Print media also remains to be one of the most popular forms of advertising because it can reach a wider target audience. There are various different types of print media, which help advertisers to target a particular segment of people. Here’s a quick look at some of the various types of print media. Next, newspapers are the most popular forms of print media. The advertiser in this case can choose from a daily newspaper to a weekly tabloid.
Different types of newspaper cater to various audiences and one can select the particular category accordingly. Advertisers then design press advertisements where in the size is decided as per the budget of the client. Content in newspapers will slightly differ to that in magazines, tabloids and newsletters. These mediums serve the purpose of showcasing advertisements, news or entertainment related information to audiences. Newspapers are a worldwide medium, that have been around far back to Julius Caesar’s time, in the form of government bulletins.
With the industrial revolution, newspaper were made possible to print and were used as a means of communicating in the year 1814, which kick started journalism. Country of Origin| Year of Publication| Name of Newspaper| Germany| 1609| Avisa| France| 1631| La Gazette (original name – Gazette de France)| Portugal, Lisbon| 1645| A Gazeta| Krakow, Poland| 1661| Merkuriusz Polski Ordynaryjny| Haarlem, The Netherlands| 1656| Opregte Haarlemsche Courant| England| 1702| The Daily Courant| Inception of Some Newspaper Publications Worldwide
This table traces some countries, with their first publications that started off the newspaper era. Besides that, magazines also offer advertisers an opportunity to incorporate various new techniques and ideas. Magazines are one such form of print media that give a more specific target group to the client. The client can make a choice of the particular magazine as per the product. Morover, newsletters also form an important part of print media. These target a specific group of audience and give information on the product. Furthermore, brochures also give detailed information about the product.
These are mainly distributed at events or even at the main outlet when a consumer needs to read in detail about the product. Posters are forms of outdoor advertising. The message in a poster has to be brief and eye-catching as it targets a person on the move. Apart from these media, direct mail marketing, flyers, handbills or leaflets, banner advertising, billboard advertising, press releases are also various types of print media. RADIO Radio is a fascinating medium among the various mass communication media because of its special characteristics.
It continues to be as relevant and potent as it was in the early years despite the emergence of more glamorous media. It is a saying that in the first phase of broadcasting pning three decades from the early twenties, radio reigned alone or was the dominant player. Similarity, radio is a scientific device that functions as an effective auditory instrument for communication. It also plays an important role in education. It is not only informs, but also inspires human being for learning more and more.
It is not only includes values and virtues, but also creates attitudes, interests and appreciation of human life. It can cover a very wide area at the same time. Radio has immense values, particularly in a developing country like India where constraints of finance, efficient teachers, suitable equipment and appliances adversely affect educational planning and administration. Besides that, radio is to play a significant part in expansion as well as qualitative improvement of education. There are some inaccessible areas in our country where expansion of education has faced difficulties.
To a large number of socially disadvantaged children, education is neither meaningful nor interesting. Radio served hugely the human instinct to know about events taking place around him and at distant lands. No fairy tales, but the radio brought news from across the oceans and from inland without distinction. A regular listener of radio news would get an impression as the whole world has shrunk a feeling which print media would never had thought in around 400 years before the invention of the radio. Besdies, the news aired regularly from different stations were followed by views and a much spicy discussion mong experts to generate more interest in events from social and political life. The announcements about weather, and trains or flights schedule has been an added advantage to radio listeners. There has been a growing awareness about the inadequacy of the traditional or formal system of education not only for expansion, but also for improving the standards of education. The need for alternative mass-media is gradually felt along- with non-formal system of education. It is a matter of fact that radio is an important instrument to foster the sense of unity and integrity among the people.
The cultural programmes, debates, talks, through broadcasts involve a strong desire among the people to know each and other’s culture and values. In order to promote a sense of understanding and unity among people it is an inexpensive, but potential communication medium reaching all levels of people. So its role for national/emotional integration and international understanding is praise-worthy. Entertainment is an important aspect of human life. Radio is the most popular mass medium through which leisure is carefully utilized through song, drama and other cultural, programmes.
It also provides information about various popular hobbies and leisure time activities. It gives happiness and joy through various programme. As already mentioned, radio brought a unique entertainment opportunities to people, especially for those who could not afford the luxury of visiting places where entertainment was available only to the rich. With a radio set by their side, common people could also enjoy music and stayed informed about events as ordinary as a street robbery to change of governments and tug of war among political rivals to availability of commodities in the market.
But it was the entertainment which made the radio popular on first instance. Very soon the entertainment started moving in other areas than music. Comedy shows, gossip chat and answering letters from listeners made people crazy about radio enjoyments. Vocational information about production and consumption practices in industry and agriculture, use of manures and highbred seed, employment news are broadcast by Radio. Programmes regarding self-employment and talks by skilled people ensure better understanding among people for economic prosperity.
Furthermore , radio opened gates of jobs never known before. To become a broadcaster with a radio station was considered to have a prestigious job in the early days of radio. It still is. The news-readers, copy writers, playwright for radio dramas, anchors for different discussion shows, musicians, recording engineers and a range of technical jobs came about so quickly that colleges and universities had to run degree programs to meet the requirement of radio stations to employee staff in its various sections.
Apart from the above matters radio also inculcates scientific temper among people, helps to enjoy the cultural activities and eradicates social superstitions and age-old dogmas. The role of radio in shaping the society and providing information and education is significant. Educational broadcasting is also useful for improving education and for enrichment purposes. The radio marked a turning point, in the way information was conveyed or transferred, because it used sound to capture the attention of audiences.
Being the first communications medium that could transfer or transmit live voices over long distances, radio was and still is one of the most effective medium. People depended and still depend upon it as a source of important news, and information. The importance and optimum use of radio as a mass media was nowhere more evident than in World War 1. Radio was used to send diplomatic messages when Germany found out the British had tapped its cables. It made itself a medium that audiences found as their connection to all that happened worldwide.
If they ever knew that television and the Internet, would take the world by storm in this day and age, they’d be blown away by how we’re advancing, and still in the running to make it bigger and better. We cannot deny that radio itself is an exclusive medium of the sound. It is an aural or auditory medium, a medium of the ear. There are three major elements of a radio broadcast: spoken-word, music and sound effects. They are all sounds carried on the air waves to the listener. T o be acceptable, all these sounds must be pleasant and expressive for the ears.
They must be artistically integrated or mixed to provoke the imagination of the listener, otherwise, the intention of the broadcast would be defeated. Radio proved far more effective in mass communication as compared to the print media. The property of radio which did not require transportation of the message drew immense attention of common people and investors in the field of mass media. Once the radio technology was recognized as an effective means of communication, there was a race among companies and individuals to have their own radio facility. TELEVISION
Television is now playing a very important role in our lives. Television is not only a convenient source of entertainment, but also a comparative cheap one. Television keeps us informed about current events. It allows us to follow the latest developments in science and politics. It also offers an endless series of programs that are both instructive and entertaining. Many television programs introduce people to things they never thought of before and have never heard of before. Television series have done a great job in popularizing many literary masterpieces.
Besides, television has been good company to those who do not work, like housewives and lonely old people. The progression of television has come a long way from black and white and color TV to plasma and LCD TVs. The advent of this ever-changing medium started in the late 1930s, for entertainment and news purposes initially. Now, we have advertising, that has been incorporated into entertainment and news, to give viewers a chance to avail from products/services. There’s also a new way of accessing the Internet, by using a ‘Web TV’ that is hooked up instead of a PC, to browse information, and watch streaming videos on large LCD screens.
After production of the TV program, a news channel has to make it available to the market, for those who are interested in viewing it. These programs can be talk shows, cooking shows, serials, movies and so on. There are two ways that is done. First/OriginalRun Once a program is completed by the producer, of either multiple or a single episode/s, he/she then wants a network or station to view it to audiences. These networks/TV stations already pay for the production themselves, or license a producer to do it instead before it is viewed to the people.
Broadcast Syndication This is when secondary runs of a program, which go beyond its original first issue run, is again broadcast in other countries/locally and isn’t necessarily managed by the producer. In this case other TV stations, individuals or companies involve themselves in selling the product to available markets that they are allowed to showcase it to, usually under contract basis in some cases from the copyright holders/producers. With television people are still free to enjoy other “civilized pleasures”, or even more.
There are a considerable variety of programs on television. The viewer is always free to choose whatever he wants to see. Furthermore, television provides enormous possibilities for education, like school programs via closed-circuit television as well as special broadcasts for those in a TV University or Open University. It also offers specialized subjects like language teaching, sewing, cooking, painting, cosmetics. Television does the job of education in the broadest sense. Instructive programs achieve their goal through entertaining the viewers.
Moreover, television provides an outlet for creative talents and people all around the world are no longer distant and isolated from each other. It brings most distant countries and the strangest customs right into your living room. Compared with radio, everything on television is more lifelike, vivid, and real. Television may be a vital factor in holding a family together. Especially where there are economic problems that cause the husband and wife to be at a breaking point. There is no denying that television keeps people informed about the government and its programs .
It also keeps people informed news and weather too. In addition , it ask people to be aware of certain disasters like floods, winds. In the case of serious problems television tells people what to do. Therefore, people can be taught about safety through television. On the other hand, television is an audio-visual and sophisticated scientific device. It telecasts programmes from far and wide areas of the country and abroad. It has an important role to play for entertainment and education of people all over the world. Environment pollution and ecological imbalances have challenged the life on the earth in modern times.
Rapid population growth, urbanization problem of drain, huge stock of garbage, deforestation, evacuation of sarcastic gases from industry and automobiles are some of the reason of environment pollution. Necessity of clear environment for health and hygiene, needy of sanitation information about birth control devices are to be taught to mass through different programme. General awareness about the environment and its problems are raised through TV programmes. Socio-Political and Cultural achievement of the country described through different programmes to foster the sense of brotherhood among the people of different caste, creed and sex.
Changing social systems, cultural and political issues are also brought for discussion and debate and exhibition on cultural exchange and political reviews are necessary for preservation of cultural values. Televisions another function is to provide entertainment to people through the programmes like Cinema, Serial, and Sports. Its role as an important communication medium is noteworthy for promoting national unity, developing economy and refining socio-cultural life of people. Its great contribution to humanity is education through different programmes.
In short, we can never hide from the truth that television is very significant in our lives these days. It is very hard to imagine life without TV. It brings us together with some other cultures in other countries. It offers unending entertainment scenes and important information about life. It will still remain as a great medium of information that will still affect the people’s lives in the future generations. Internet Internet technology has paved the way to revolutionize all that we thought was either hidden or inaccessible.
From the different types of media, the history of the Internet can be termed to be, by far, man’s greatest innovation story. The Internet has made it possible to contact others worldwide, nationally and locally; to send emails and be a part of chat rooms and conferences; blogging with discussion boards, opinion polls and forums; webcam viewing; global mapping using ‘Google Earth’ , sending and receiving images and files, downloading from the Internet through websites, signing up to a social networking websites, radio stations with live streaming , video streaming and lots more.
It has stomped out conventional norms, with every teenager, adult and senior owning either a laptop or PC today. News can also be viewed via satellite with reporters covering events on site and sending it via the Internet to broadcasting news networks. It’s an amalgamation of uses, that is above all user-friendly and hi-tech. Using radio waves and frequency, not to mention satellite transmissions – we are able to access a whole new domain when it comes down to getting what we want and need within minutes.
The Internet revolution has made it easier for people to get in touch, fuel business, make profits, shop and access free information from any Internet access enabled device. It is truly a technology that speaks for itself. The internet is a medium with which we can view information from anywhere in the world. Documents from the World Wide Web and various other services such as instant chat, email are available through the internet. Most of the time, everyone thinks that the internet and the W3 are the same, however this is not true. The internet is a network of cables, which allow users to access information of various sorts.
The data is transmitted through the Internet Protocol, which is known as the IP. Each computer will have a separate identity when it comes to the use of the internet. Though the internet was available, it only became a household word in the year 1996. But at the beginning, the use of the internet was very expensive. Most of the users went to public centers to use the internet for a high price per hour. As the use became more popular, there was an increase in the speed of the internet and also decrease in cost. Networks were planned, and looking at the money, many service providers entered the market.
They made it very simple for all users, and the use of the internet became very cheap. Everyone at home could afford to get a connection, and now most users will have unlimited access as well. This has made it possible for many people to benefit. Those who are unable to go out may get opportunities to work from home. Various other doors have been opened to the average human, and everyone has taken advantage of the creation. Almost every individual uses the internet where it is available, irrespective of age groups. This medium caters to the needs for all age groups. The internet has made a lot of activities very easy.
The medium is used for almost all purposes, even with important issues such as education and government organizations. It has come a long way from the use with only scientific organizations and institutes etc. There was a phenomenal growth in the years 1996 and 1997. The growth for the internet has been at around hundred percent per year. Majority of the users use the English language for the internet, as computer development happened in America in all stages. There are other languages as well, such as French, German, Chinese and Arabic. Internet has also made life easy because we can view through various means.
The internet has been improved through time; it took many years of improving to become what people know it today. The internet has affected people’s lives in different ways, but unfortunately some people use this easy and fast technology to do unacceptable things. Internet helps individuals in communications because it is fast and effective. And that’s why organizations started to use this technology to provide information about their activities and open the door for easy and fast communications with individuals. However, it is not correct that all changes in values caused by the internet are negative.
People must think about what positive changes that internet could make. The Internet actually embodies high and strong values from which it derives an almost irresistible strength. These include physical values such as speed, timeliness, efficiency and productivity. The government uses the internet in something called the “E-government”. The E-government “is a general term describing the use of technologies to facilitate the operation of government and the disbursement of government information and services”. By using the E-government, people can reach the government more easily and quickly.
It also can be used to provide information for citizens; citizens are able to read information in the time and place they want. If a citizen wants to send an application or a document for a certain purpose, he can do it easily and quickly with the E-government technologies (E-government). Despite all the negativities of the internet, the benefits of using it are much greater than the harms. The society was affected by internet, and internet will keep affecting society and its values always. Maybe one day all the society activities will be managed by the internet. TELEGRAPH
A telegraph is any system that transmits encoded information by signal across a distance. Although it is associated with sending messages via an electric current, the word telegraph was coined to describe an optical system of sending coded messages. From its invention until the telephone became a viable system, the telegraph was the standard means of communicating both between and within metropolitan areas in both Europe and the United States. Telegrams and telexes used telegraphy but are rapidly being replaced by facsimile (fax) transmissions through telephone lines.
Satellite transmission and high-frequency radio bands are used for international telegraphy. The telegraph was the result of a slew of inventions from all over the world. Many are unaware of the fact that the telegraph actually “preceded the railroad in forging extra local and interregional links. The reason for this was that the telegraph was used primarily for business reasons. Prior to the creation and distribution of the telegraph, America experienced a “business revolution. As the business demand grew, there was a drift towards a “natural monopoly” of the telegraph industry.
This monopoly allowed the major telegraph firms to increase the prices of the telegraph which undoubtedly prevented many people in society from using this invention for private and personal reasons. In fact, the public could not afford to pay the high costs but telegraph companies knew business firms could, so they did not use the telegraph as a means of communication. In America, the telegraph was only able to gain popularity because of the demand placed on it by business firms. It wasn’t until the invention of the telephone that the public began to truly utilize such a communicating device.
As we know, the electric telegraph was one of the first telecommunications technologies of the industrial age. Its immediate predecessors were homing pigeons, visual networks, the Pony Express, and railroads. By transmitting information quickly over long distances, the telegraph facilitated the growth in the railroads, consolidated financial and commodity markets, and reduced information costs within and between firms. This entry focuses on the industrial organization of the telegraph industry from its inception through its demise and the industry’s impact on the American economy.
The telegraph was similar to many other inventions of the nineteenth century. It replaced an existing technology, dramatically reduced costs, was monopolized by a single firm, and ultimately was displaced by a newer technology. It is nearly impossible to determine the full extent to which the telegraph changed the way people lived. It was not so much because ordinary citizens made use of it on a regular basis. In fact, it was a rather expensive means of communication that mostly appealed to big business and government. But telegraph lines followed the westward expansion of the railroad across North America.
They made it possible to communicate quickly over vast distances and they linked far-flung settlements with population centers back east. This helped foster a stronger sense of national identity and underscored the need for more standardization and uniformity. The invention of the telegraph could in some ways be seen as the real beginning of our modern age, given the way in which it so interconnected the entire world. Almost coincidental with its birth there was the emergence of a new kind of journalism that made currency its stock in trade.
Reporting events that had only just occurred took precedence over a newspaper’s traditional editorial role, and news was reported almost as soon as it happened. Corporations also could become larger and more far-flung, and nations became necessarily more interdependent. With the telegraph, information in all its aspects and forms which began to assume the critical role it plays today. Last but not least, the telegraph proved especially useful to the military. It was first used for these purposes in 1854 by the Allied Army in Bulgaria during the Crimean War.
A transcontinental telegraph line had been completed in the United States just as the Civil War began, and the telegraph proved enormously useful to both sides. During the Spanish-American War in 1898, undersea telegraph cables were cut as an act of belligerency for the first time, and in World War I, teleprinters with secret codes were heavily used by all combatants. Telegraph Timeline 1837| Cooke and Wheatstone patent telegraph in England. | 1838| Morse’s Electro-Magnetic Telegraph patent approved. | 1843| First message sent between Washington and Baltimore. | 1846| First commercial telegraph line completed.
The Magnetic Telegraph Company’s lines ran from New York to Washington. | | House’s Printing Telegraph patent approved. | 1848| Associated Press formed to pool telegraph traffic. | 1849| Bain’s Electro-Chemical patent approved. | 1851| Hiram Sibley and associates incorporate New York and Mississippi Valley Printing Telegraph Company. Later became Western Union. | 1851| Telegraph first used to coordinate train departures. | 1857| Treaty of Six Nations is signed, creating a national cartel| 1859| First transatlantic cable is laid from Newfoundland to Valentia, Ireland. Fails after 23 days, having been used to send a total of 4,359 words.
Total cost of laying the line was $1. 2 million. | 1861| First Transcontinental telegraph completed. | 1866| First successful transatlantic telegraph laid| | Western Union merges with major remaining rivals. | 1867| Stock ticker service inaugurated. | 1870| Western Union introduces the money order service. | 1876| Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone. | 1908| AT&T gains control of Western Union. Divests itself of Western Union in 1913. | 1924| AT&T offers Teletype system. | 1926| Inauguration of the direct stock ticker circuit from New York to San Francisco. 1930| High-speed tickers can print 500 words per minute. | 1945| Western Union and Postal Telegraph Company merge. | 1962| Western Union offers Telex for international teleprinting. | 1974| Western Union places Westar satellite in operation. | 1988| Western Union Telegraph Company reorganized as Western Union Corporation. The telecommunications assets were divested and Western Union focuses on money transfers and loan services. | REFFERENCES Books Coe, Lewis. The Telegraph: A History of Morse’s Invention and Its Predecessors in the United States. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1993. Holzmann, Gerald J. and Bjorn Pehrson. The Early History of Data Networks. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1995. Israel, Paul. From Machine Shop to Industrial Laboratory: Telegraphy and the Changing Context of American Invention. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. Brock, Gerald. The Telecommunications Industry. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981. DuBoff, Richard. “Business Demand and the Development of the Telegraph in the United States, 1844-1860. ” Business History Review 54 (1980): 461-477. http://www. preservearticles. com/201105056315/role-of-radio-in-education. html