As they say “Change is the only constant in this world”. This is true for all aspects of life especially in the field of Information and Communications Technology. Change happens almost every second – from the invention of the smallest gadget to the production of a very large machine to handle vast amount of information. All these are built and invented by scientist to alleviate the burden that manual processing brings and to offer a more convenient way of living to all computer users. The costs of computers are getting cheaper as new inventions come to market.
The costs also of connecting to the internet become cheaper because of the coming of so many competitors. Because of these, many people nowadays grab this very exciting opportunity. Information and Communications Technology has brought a lot of major changes in today’s modern world. One of these is the widely spread use of the Internet, which happens to be biggest network there is. Another is the utilization of telecommunications and teleconferencing which improves communication among individuals in different places all over the globe. Snail mails are rarely used the days because of e-mails.
E-mails are advantageous because in just a second or two the recipient can already receive the mail unlike the traditional one where it takes a week or even a month before it reaches to its destination. To add convenience and pleasure to all computer users, sharing of files over the web has also been so rampant. Files come in different forms – e-books, audio books, movies, songs, installers and the like. All these may be downloaded for free by some websites. These can also be easily shared through some peer-to-peer sites that allow file sharing and sites that use File Transfer Protocol (FTP).
One advantage of sharing and downloading files over the web is the ease that it brings to the users. Because of this, users need not go personally to stores to look or buy something they need. Instead, by simply clicking everything is already available. On the other hand, viruses and Trojans are also shared through this type of technology. It is easier for viruses to propagate because it just goes when files are downloaded and can immediately be saved itself in the computer, thus, putting all the files in the computer in great danger.
Users are no longer considering the issue of copyrights and property protection because all that matters to them is the ease and convenience that file sharing offers. This is one aspect of Information and Communications Technology that large-scale computer companies are giving much attention. This is also to protect their products and software from unauthorized downloads. With the advancement also in the field of Information and Communications Technology, the birth of Digital Rights Management comes into existence.
Digital Rights Management (DRM) is an access control technology that limits the usage all digital media. This also refers to some restrictions associated with instances of digital devices and media. One of the earliest application of the Digital Rights Management technology was Content Scrambling System (CSS) which was employed by the DVD forum on film DVD’s. This system used a very simple encryption algorithm that requires device manufacturers to sign license agreements that prohibits the inclusion of features, such as digital outputs. Another example that uses DRM is Microsoft’s Windows Vista.
This Operating System contains a system called Protected Media Path which contains Protected Video Path (PVP). PVP prevents DRM-restricted software from running/playing while unsigned software is running so that the unsigned software cannot access the software. Protected Video Path can also encrypt information as it is transmitted to the monitor or graphics card, which makes it more difficult to create illegal recordings. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Digital_rights_management) Digital Rights Management is the greatest challenge faced in today’s digital world.
Traditional Rights Management of physical materials benefits this because this provides barrier to unauthorized utilization of digital content. In the past, DRM’s focal point was in security and encryption as a means of solving the problems of illegal copying of files through keeping a close monitor in such a way that files are only distributed to those who pay. The next generation of DRM is through describing, identifying, protecting, monitoring and tracking of all forms of rights usage. In designing and implementing a DRM, there are two architectures to consider.
First is the functional architecture. Functional architecture covers the high-level modules of the DRM system that provides and end-to-end management of rights. The following are the three areas which can be modeled in building a digital rights enabled system: ? Intellectual Property Asset Creation and Capture: This includes the management of creation of the content so that it can be easily traded and asserting rights when the content is first created. ? Intellectual Property Asset Management: This includes the steps on how to manage and enable the trade of content.
? Intellectual Property Asset Usage: This includes how to manage the usage of content once it has been traded. Functional Architecture specifies the roles and behavior of a number of cooperating and interoperating modules under the three areas of Intellectual Property (IP): Asset Creation, Management, and Usage. The IP Asset Creation and Capture module supports Rights Validation, Rights Creation and Rights Workflow. The IP Asset Management supports Repository and Trading Functions. While the IP Asset Usage support Permissions and Tracking Management.
These 3 module presented provide the core functionality of a DRM System. The second architecture of a DRM Framework is the Information Architecture. Information Architecture covers the modeling of the entities within a DRM system as well as their relationships. The main issues that require the creation of an Information Architecture are the following: Modeling the entities, Identifying and describing the entities and expressing the right statements. The Information Architecture shows that any metadata about the three entities (Users, Rights and Content) should contain a mechanism that will relate one to the other.
The core entities – User, Rights and Content – should be carefully identified. Users can be anybody who needs the information. Content also can be any content at any level of aggregation. While the Rights entity refers to the permissions and restriction set between the users and the content itself. The users create and use the contents and users also own the rights which are established over the content. The framework of the Information Architecture on Rights Expression Model shows that Rights Information is consists of four (4) areas: Permissions, Obligations, Constraints and Rights Holder.
The Rights Entity is critical because it represents the effectiveness of the language used to establish the rights of a metadata. (http://www. dlib. org/dlib/june01/iannella/06iannella. html) In addition, most companies in today’s modern world use DRM to keep a tight rein on the digital media content. This technology does not really stop copyright pirates but instead impede the lawful use of movies, music, files and other copyrighted works in the web. To the extent, DRM hinders the legal uses of digital media.
DRM also prevents users from making a back up file of the movies, music and the like downloaded from the internet, also prevents recording TV shows and remixing movie clips. (http://www. eff. org/issues/drm) One of the key problems in establishing a DRM is that up till now, the solidification of aspects of copyright law has been agreeable upon to a certain amount of indeterminacy or there are areas of legal “greyness”. The laws that support the institutionalism of intellectual property construct a balance between the rights of the owner and the public realm of knowledge.
The very core of the DRM is to eliminate this “greyness” which allowed flexibility in the public/private Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). This DRM technology was basically intended to shore up private rights. These legal rights will be incorporated in technologies that made violation impossible and less dependent. According to some experts, DRM merely enables copyright holders to establish the rights they have had in law. DRM is actually aimed at controlling the first access of the content then monitor the material accessed. The table below shows the “hard” and “soft” DRM.
Table 1. 0: Characteristics of different modes of digital rights management Basically, DRM reflects the perception of an unmanageable field of internet by some content users. The main target of DRM is to simply manage rights or view access and to prevent illegal copying of files and information. In a broader sense, DRM is in the direction of tracking and controlling internet files once it has entered the web market. However, one of the key uses of a DRM is the establishment of control over copyrighted items. (http://www. firstmonday. org/issues/issue8_11/may/)
The following are the potential costs that go with the DRM technologies: • a reduction in freedom of expression (http://w2. eff. org/IP/DRM/fair_use_and_drm. html) • a reduction in innovation (http://w2. eff. org/IP/DRM/fair_use_and_drm. html) • a reduction in innovation (http://w2. eff. org/IP/DRM/fair_use_and_drm. html) • an erosion of privacy (http://w2. eff. org/IP/DRM/fair_use_and_drm. html) • the “freezing” of fair use (http://w2. eff. org/IP/DRM/fair_use_and_drm. html) • undermining archives, libraries, and others who store and preserve our cultural heritage (http://w2. eff.
org/IP/DRM/fair_use_and_drm. html) • lessened competition (http://w2. eff. org/IP/DRM/fair_use_and_drm. html) There have been so many facts presented about DRM technologies. Let us now get tackle some examples about DRM. These are presented below: • a certain company configures its server to block sensitive emails or spam mails (http://computer. howstuffworks. com/drm1. htm) • an e-book is restricted from copying and printing of materials (http://computer. howstuffworks. com/drm1. htm) • a movie studio limits the number of copies that can be produced from its DVD’s having software in it (http://computer.
howstuffworks. com/drm1. htm) A Digital Rights Management works in three levels: establishing a copyright for a piece of content, managing the distribution of that copyrighted content and controlling what a consumer can do with that content once it has been distributed. To accomplish these, there must be a clear definition of the levels and carefully establishing a relationship between them. A very common example shows where a user makes an online transaction. Jane Doe, an internet user, is a registered member of an MP3-download site. Jane is paying so that she can download MP3s from this site.
She intends to download the song by Lauren Hill entitled “Everything is everything”. Jane’s subscription entitles her to a 5 music download per month. In this scenario, the user is Jane and the content is “Everything is everything”. In order for Jane to access songs, she has a user ID and the content also has its product number for easy retrieval. This is an easy task. The harder part is identifying the rights – the things Jane is allowed and not allowed to do. Based on the diagram, Jane is entitled to play copy and download the file. She is also entitled to a $1 off next month and this is one of the privileges she enjoys.
Every time Jane logs in to the site, the user entity is still the same but the contents and the rights may differ since Jane will download and access different songs. (http://computer. howstuffworks. com/drm1. htm) To illustrate the above cited example, see below: JANE DOE purchases “Everything is everything” MP3 site has OBLIGATIONS RIGHTS RESTRICTIONS ($1 off next month) (Download, Play, Copy) (2 copies only) It shows a very common transaction example for online music store that offers customers a wide array of audio files which can be of use and help to them.
In implementing a DRM to prevent unauthorized access to a company’s information and digital contents, one must have both a server and a client machine where certain application software is running and is configured as server on the server machine and configured as a client on the client machine. Digital Rights Management (DRM) can be any of the two: digital management of rights or management of digital rights. Management of Digital Rights includes the description and identification of contents and also covers information about the rights associated with the content.
The Digital Management of Rights includes the technical support added to the content. This includes encrypting the digital content and some other access control mechanism. Other limitations include the number of copies to be printed and a permission of whether or not the file can be copied. There are three (3) reasons why publishers are not willing to grant access through document supplies: ? Publishers are not in direct control when supply is through a third party. ? They fear that inappropriate use might result ? They fear erosion of subscriptions.
DRM does not provide an immediate solution to the above-mentioned reasons but they give comfort to in controlling inappropriate use of digital content. (http://www. ifla. org/IV/ifla71/papers/096e-Braid. pdf) DRM technologies not only allow content providers to protect copyrighted contents but also the ability to develop a differentiated business model for paid content. There are a variety of forms to monetize digital content on the basis of a DRM. The following are presented below: ? Pay per Download The most commonly practiced form of a DRM-based content offering.
As users download files, videos and the like; they are asked to pay a certain amount to cover for the download fee. Along with this is the attachment of particular rights to the use of content object. This is advantageous for users since files are accessed just once but can already be used several times. Users can save money, time and effort for this method. ? Pay per Use In this model, the digital content object is streamed over a wireless network or through the internet rather than being downloaded and saved to the user’s computer.
The usage right is restricted to a single use of the content. Users do not directly own the content but only have the right to use it for immediate consumption and with a certain amount of payment. This is very costly on the part of the user because every time he wishes to use the file, he needs to pay a certain amount of money. ? Subscription Users pay a certain amount to be able to access and download a digital content from a particular site. The DRM-based content service requires the user to specify the start and end date of the subscription period.
When the period ends, the user can no longer access the digital content. This type of model is often cheaper compared to Pay per download and Pay per Use. This model is not that expensive when compared to Pay per download and Pay per use since, the amount paid is already good for at least a year and is, therefore, given a discount by the music store company. Songs that come in bulk are often cheaper when compared to songs purchased individually. ? Rental This type of service is often referred to as “on demand” wherein the content can be accessed by a user within a limited period of time.
This is also based on content streaming; thus requires a broadband connection and flat rate fee contracts. This also requires that users/customers do not wish to own the content. This is similar to Pay-per-use because a user only has access to a digital content if he has paid for the rental amount. But the us ? Bundling Digital content are sometimes offered in bundles. Bundling a low-value digital content gives advantage to the providers because it reduces billing costs per transaction. For users/customers, bundling gives them convenience can lower search and information costs. ? Price and Product Differentiation
A DRM system allows content providers to offer market offerings at different prices which gives the content industry a chance to develop innovative products and services based on what the customers’ want and need that have not been available in the market. ? Super distribution and viral marketing This allows users to forward digital content to another users but the recipient has limited rights to the access of the content not until a full license is given. This has the advantage of satisfying the demand of customers to share digital content and making recommendation on the basis of legal business model.
? Preview and Sampling DRM system can also be used to implement promotional licenses to promote physical or digital goods through digital channels. Customers/users are allowed to listen or access to the file once or twice but after that, payment is already needed. This allows the user to assess the quality of the file, whether or not is good. ? Forensic DRM Models This model does not restrict the users but is just aimed at preventing copyright infringements on a large scale. The digital content files are fingerprinted so that illegal copies on the internet can easily be traced.
Business models that are based on this model can profit from this because customers do not, in any way, feel that their usage right is restricted. To mention the benefits of DRM Systems for customers, let us discuss its costs and benefits. The following are the benefits of a DRM system: ? Increased selection of valuable content: This means that users now have a wide array of selections as to the type of digital content he wishes to purchase or download. ? High quality of secure, legal content: With the aid of DRM, digital contents are now more secured and are less prone to hacking.
This also gives assurance to the music store owners that their contents are free from access of those unregistered users. ? Flexible use of content: Users are offered a variety of ways on what to do with the file – to download it, purchase or simply play the song online on a Pay-Per-Use basis. On the other hand, the following are the costs: ? Usage restrictions ? Reduced ease of use ? Intransparent usage rules ? Privacy restrictions ? Price (http://www. ivir. nl/publications/helberger/INDICAREStateoftheArtReport. pdf) Digital Rights Management Technology has brought a lot of changes in dealing with today’s exchange of information.
The level of security of digital content increases because sites are already starting to implement this technology to alleviate the illegal dissemination of digital materials. Current technologies today have integrated Digital Rights Management into Content Management. Content Management is a system that stores digital content for browsing, accessing, searching and information retrieval by users. The most commonly used types of Content Management are: ? Digital Asset Management: manages rich media asset that includes audio and video clips, for retrieval in media production environments.
? Web Content Management: tools that provide templates for web design and publishing environments for website and other forms of internet content delivery. ? Enterprise Content Management: facilitates management of corporate documents and other types of information for internal use of a company. The above-mentioned types of Content Management have common processes associated with their use. These are the following: ? Database Management System for proper management of metadata and the content itself. ? Content Storage System which includes storage devices such as disks, network storage area and offline/online storage area.
? Content Indexing and Search includes inverted text indexes to promote searching of contents. ? Metadata Creation which includes text categorization and image understanding. ? Workflow Capabilities which includes check-in/check-out and approval routing. DRM focuses on providing protection to digital contents. There are basically three (3) primary technology components of persistent protection: ? Packagers ? Controllers ? License Servers Other elements of persistent protection: ? Business Rights ? Access Tracking ? Rights Licensing
Integrating retrieval of rights metadata with ingestion of a digital image into a Content Management System shows that a certain magazine publisher has a system of keeping track freelance photographers which includes tracking information about the publishers’ contract with each freelancer. It is, therefore, beneficial to integrate rights database so that rights information associated with the content sources can go into the Content Management System as rights metadata. The figure also involves the use of Digital Asset Management at a media company.
In an Enterprise Content Management (ECM), rights metadata can be supersets of the following types of information found in corporate systems: ? File Access Permissions ? Resource Access Control List ? User and Group Identifiers Integration of content management with user and role identity is also important in media industry as well as in corporate systems. Because in the media industry, one of the most prevalent problems is that piracy occurs even before the product has been officially released in the market – piracy is done either a professional from inside the company or by its business partners.
To help solve this dilemma, content creation vendors can provide some trusted tools that operate with persistent protection schemes. Integration between Content Management and DRM-based Technologies is the maintenance of “product catalog” systems that contain product metadata. This product metadata can overlap with content metadata because a single item of content can appear in more than one different product. Integrating Content and Rights Metadata through publishing process to ensure that rights are respected shows that the magazine publisher mentioned in Figure 8.
0 might have a web publishing system that takes content automatically from the Content Management System and it is what the management use to maintain the site. Based on the above-mentioned examples, there are several types of systems that depend on the same types of rights metadata to achieve the following automated process integration: ? Content creation and editing tools ? Content Management System – Digital Asset Management & Enterprise Content Management ? Web Publishing System ? Product Catalog Systems ? CRM and Customer Tracking Systems ? Content Distribution Systems
Integrating the above-mentioned systems, will be easier and less costly if every one of these system has a common understanding of content rights and related information and a set of standard ways in interoperating with software components that can interpret with rights information. As the products of Information and Communications Technology becomes increasing, the birth of other technologies to minimize illegal distribution of digital content information has been so fast that media companies need not fear of displaying files and information in the web. (http://www. xrml.
org/reference/CM-DRMwhitepaper. pdf. ) To fully implement a Digital Rights Management in any online music store, the company should be equipped with all the necessary hardware components to provide to their customers the best possible service and the most secured digital contents. To do so, client and server machines should be in place for these companies. Server computers are used to store all the information that relates to a particular user. These information will again be used to authenticate the validity of the user, if he wishes to login and make another transaction.
The server machine should not be slower than DUO Processors, should have at least a gigabyte memory speed and should be able to hold data of more than 500G. This is so, because this server computer is where everything is stored – from the smallest detail about the company and the user up to the transactions made by the user to the music store company. On one hand, the client machine should also be of high-quality Personal Computers so that testing of transactions can easily be made. These client machines should not be slower than Pentium 4 computers.
This will be used to test some application software of online music company. To clearly understand the above-mentioned DRM technologies, let me discuss an example. ABC Music Store Company offers a variety of digital content to its customers; digital content includes movies, songs and audio books. The store is not open to all users but only to registered ones. Users must first register; providing information that can authenticate their accounts to ABC Company including an annual membership fee of $100 inclusive of 3 downloads per month of movies, songs and audio books.
A user needs to verify its registration through an email account sent by ABC Co. After the account has been verified, the user can now enjoy the pleasure of browsing the site’s content and can now start downloading. The user has a unique User ID, and each product has also a unique ID. Each time a user downloads a file, the product IDs of the files downloaded together with the user’s ID is saved to the database so that ABC Co. can keep track of the transactions done by a user. When a file is downloaded, together with it are the rights the user has, and this also means that the user can copy the file or play it when necessary.
This is the most common form of verifying an account and being able to access the content of an online music store. This scenario is very common in the world of Information and Communications Technology. This happens most of time not only in online music store companies but also to online stores which offers products to customers. This is advantageous to the part of the client. iTunes Account Authentication Another concrete example is the Apple iTunes Store. Before a user begins any transactions with iTunes, the user has to create an account with the server and then authorize the PC running iTunes.
In the authorization process, iTunes creates a unique ID Number assigned to the computer where it is running, sends it to the server and the server assigns it to the user’s account number. Five different machine ID can be authorized to a single user. Every time a user buys a song from iTunes, a user key is created for that particular transaction. The Advance Audio Coding (AAC) song, which was developed by some audio experts and was adopted an open standard although it has been updated, is scrambled using a different master key which is then included into the AAC song itself.
The master key is exclusively locked through the user key which is protected by iTunes and then sent to the Apple server. The purchased songs are locked in iTunes and these are not mixed up in the server. This results a speedy and simple transaction by the delegation of the work to the local computer by iTunes. (http://www. roughlydrafted. com/RD/RDM. Tech. Q1. 07/2A351C60-A4E5-4764-A083-FF8610E66A46. html) This is type of technology is helpful for online music stores because songs are the most common means of entertainment.
If online music stores will not incorporate this technology into their system, chances are loss of profit will be experienced and can then lead to bankruptcy. Any management will avoid this kind of problem, which is why they have to look for ways on how to prevent this problem from coming and will eventually adopt new technologies. With the birth of so many technologies these days, preventing illegal access to any sites is no longer a big problem. But then again, company owners will not be so lax because the more technologies will come out to ease transactions, the more challenged are the hackers in doing something against the law.
Digital Rights Management (DRM) has, indeed, been a great help both to the management’s side and to the customers’ side. DRM is applied to online companies to restrict access from illegal users and/or hackers. This type of users does nothing but destroys the content of a site, if not download or accesses any digital content without much rights and permission from the owner. With the aid of Digital Rights Management, the illegal access of digital content will continue to be prevented. Digital Rights Management is basically, a technology to increase the level of security of all digital contents.
Only those authorized and registered users have access to any online store. Many computer users nowadays prefer browsing the web to make any transactions because it is very convenient on their part. Because of this, many intelligent and wise computer users take advantage of this by accessing files which they do not have any permission to access. This threatens not only the management but the users as well. This can bring loss to the organization. Along with this DRM technology are the advantages it brings. Customers’ transactions are easily kept tracked by the server computer.
Clients also have full control to their chosen digital content – either a file is downloaded or just access online. The management also can assure to their customers that their files are safe and free from hackers. Digital content files can only be accessed by users who have paid to access these files. Digital Rights Management has indeed, changed the way online transactions are done. It provides a more secured, safer and easier means of doing transactions. This is one of the products of the advancement in the field of Information Technology.
As we are heading in the Information Superhighway, it is best to incorporate technologies that can really alleviate manual process, than can assure the management for best service to their customers and that can also assure the customers for faster response in whatever transactions they want to make to a certain organization. Because of this technology, many emerging trends in Information Technology are now slowly making its way in the global market. Large companies are given assurance that most of their files are kept in a much secured place.
It is an undeniable fact that the problem in content security is what any online store fears and faces these days. With Digital Rights Management, problems with file security are now solved. Digital contents are no longer accessed to those who haven’t paid and for those who are not legal and authorized users to these files. As Digital Rights Management continues to govern in the industry, digital content rolls up to any users packed with the right Access Permits – to download, copy or play/open any file. Bibliography No Author.
No Year. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Digital_rights_management. Ianella, Renato. 2001. Digital Rights Management Architecture. http://www. dlib. org/dlib/june01/iannella/06iannella. html. No Author. No Year. http://www. eff. org/issues/drm. May, Christopher. No year. Digital rights management and the Breakdown of Social Norms. http://www. firstmonday. org/issues/issue8_11/may/. Lohmann, Fred von. Fair Use and Digital Rights Management. No Year. http://w2. eff. org/IP/DRM/fair_use_and_drm. html Layton, Julia. No Year. How Digital Management Works. http://computer. howstuffworks. com/drm1. htm Braid, Andrew. 2005.
The use of Digital Rights Management for Document Supply. http://www. ifla. org/IV/ifla71/papers/096e-Braid. pdf Helberger, Natali. , et al. 2004. Digital Rights Management and Consumer Acceptability. http://www. ivir. nl/publications/helberger/INDICAREStateoftheArtReport. pdf Rosenblatt ,Bill & Dykstra ,Gail. 2003. Imperatives and Opportunities for Digital Content Lifecycles. www. xrml. org/reference/CM-DRMwhitepaper. pdf. No Author. No Year. How FairPlay Works: Apple iTunes DRM Dilemma. http://www. roughlydrafted. com/RD/RDM. Tech. Q1. 07/2A351C60-A4E5-4764-A083-FF8610E66A46. html
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