The French word “renaissance” is equivalent to “rebirth” in English. The time period named for this term was indeed a rebirth of the creativity and human spirit lost with the classical age. Most importantly, the Renaissance was a revival of an interest to learn. In many ways, it is the opposite of the preceding Middle Ages. Their world revolved around the Roman Catholic Church; belief in god dictated every aspect of life. On the contrary, the Renaissance was secular and emphasized the predominance of individuality and human values, known as humanism.
However GUID or dark the Middle Ages may seem, they were essential for setting the stage for the Renaissance. In 1095, Pope Urban II launched what he called a “holy war. ” This war, issued to regain control of the Holy Land from the Muslims, occurred from 1095 to 1099 and became known as the First Crusade. The Second Crusade began in 1144 with hopes of recapturing the City of Odessa, and it ended in 1149 without having accomplished what it was intended for. The third and final crusade (1189-1192) was organized to take Jerusalem back from the Muslim leader, Salad, also failing to accomplish its original goal.
However, there is a reason the Crusades are recognized as “history most successful failure – ” The impacts of these religious wars were as influential as it gets. Women had opportunities to manage affairs with the men away at war. The ships that transported crusaders were used by merchants to bring back goods such as tea, coffee, sugar, spices, crops, and silk. Europeans saw these as exotic, which stimulated an interest in trade, especially between Europe and Southwest Asia. This increased trade was one of the most prominent attributes of the High Middle Ages.
It was also vital for paving the way for the Renaissance. With expanding trade came prosperity for Europe, specifically Italy, along with new trading cities. The fast growth of such business is labeled as the Commercial Revolution. The revolution enabled European towns to grow, and guilds (worker unions) to develop. When serfs recognized opportunity in trade, they abandoned their lords, and a middle class developed. Together, these factors broke down Feudalism The surge of trade and commerce in the High Middle Ages led to a widespread increase in knowledge.
Literature became more accessible, and was written in vernacular – native language, as opposed to Latin. This made it so that a wider variety of people could become literate. Before, only the wealthy could read and write. Universities were established, and the curriculum covered arithmetic, grammar, music, and drama. The High Middle Ages was the peak of the Medieval Era. However, the late Middle Ages seemed to be comprised of disaster and turmoil. Pope Boniface VIII and King Phillip IV of France collided, leading to the Great Schism.
By the time this split in the church ceased with the election of Martin V in 1417, the papacy had already been greatly weakened. The bubonic plague hit Europe hard, leading to the death of 25 lion of its people. The prayers of the Church failed to stop the plague, which further lowered its prestige. The Black Death ripped apart the fabric of society. However grim the Plague was, it certainly lent itself to the development of the Renaissance. The late Middle Ages were a terrifying time to be alive, and the survivors wanted to celebrate human spirit and individuality.
This newfound outlook on life led to a surge in the arts that lasted from about 1300 to 1600 – the Renaissance. The people of Italy originally hoped to reawaken the culture of Classical Rome and Greece, however in the process they discovered new styles of art and iterate, along with new values such as humanism. This time period originated in Italy due to its prosperous cities and merchant class, but soon the rest of Europe was under its influence. Merchants saw the best opportunities lay in the field of the arts, and they soon flourished. The arts also became less secular, drama in particular.
Religious plays saw their demise when interludes led to the rebirth of theater. Moldier dean Baptists Opaquely) was a French playwright, actor, and director. Born on January 15 1622, he dedicated himself entirely to the theater until his tragic death in 1673. He composed 12 of the most lasting comedies in history, and rose to fame with the publication of his first play, The Precious Maidens Ridiculed (1659). He was known as the most popular comic playwright of his time. His comedy was secular, and the clergy even believed that some of his plays were intended as attacks at the church.
They went so far as to ban one of his works. The last of his pieces was The Imaginary Invalid (1673), which he wrote while ill from a lung condition. After the fourth performance of this play, Moldier collapsed on stage, coughing up blood, while playing the lead role, Organ, and died later that day. As in much of Molder’s work, The Imaginary Invalid (Lee Malady imaginary) showcases a good amount of Comedic delegate themes and techniques, such as stock characters – the three most pronounced of these figures were the servant, master, and inamorata (lovers).
The play is a satire of the medical field, as the lead, Organ, is a classic hypochondriac. His daughter Angelical is an Inamorata (a lover), her partner being the man she wishes to marry. Organ has plans for her to marry a doctor, seeing as he’s “ill” and a doctor in the family would benefit himself. Their maid Continent is the equivalent of a Comedic servant. The Imaginary Invalid showcases certain ideals of the Renaissance, such as the importance of each individual, and that the greatest part of being human is the humans free will to choose.
Angelical comes to her father expecting to have his blessing in her marrying the man of her dreams. Organ seems to be more than willing to consent, even satisfied with what he has heard of the man, until they gather that they are not talking about the same person. Before the Renaissance, there was no compromise – the only word that mattered was the father’s. The plays controversial comedy also reflected values of the Renaissance. It as a source of entertainment produced for people’s enjoyment regardless of the Church’s disapproval.
While contrasting to the celebrated Renaissance, the Middle Ages were essential for setting the stage for the remarkable era. The Renaissance remains an impressive time period, considering the immense growth of human knowledge and achievements. The arts held a position of utmost importance, and they allowed people to express themselves in many ways. This feeds directly into the number one new value of the time: humanism. Without the arts, there would have been no Renaissance, and in turn, life today would be strikingly different. Works Cited Beck, Roger B.
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