The Notions of Hot Springs, Stalactites and Lahars

I need help creating a thesis and an outline on The Notions of Hot Springs, Stalactites and Lahars. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. Erosion is the process by which the rock and soil of the earth’s crust are loosened, dissolved, or worn away and simultaneously moved from one place to another. The agents of erosion are water, wind, ice and gravity. Moving water is the primary agent of erosion. Pounding waves along the coast continuously alter the shoreline, wearing away cliffs and beaches over time and carry pebbles and other sediments that cause weathering. Running water in creeks, streams and rivers erodes the riverbed by cutting into the bedrock. Falling rain loosens and carries away the topsoil. Glaciers are moving sheets of ice that carry the rock, soil and vegetation along with them, wear away the bedrock and gouge valleys from mountain slopes. The wind is a forceful agent of erosion in areas that lack ground cover, particularly when it carries particles of sand. Gravity brings about erosion indirectly by its downward pulling effect on running water and also directly, by causing rockfalls and avalanches. Burrowing and hoofed animals, plant roots and men are also agents of erosion. An important part of erosion is weathering, which is the chemical and physical breakdown of rocks at or near the earth’s surface. Weathering can be mechanical, involving the physical disintegration of rocks, due to gravity, heat, friction and moisture. It can also be chemical, involving the decomposition of rock due to dissolution, oxidation and hydrolysis. (Science of Everyday Things website).

Earthquakes are vibrations of the earth caused by the sudden release of energy along faults, due to the displacement of rocks. According to the Elastic Rebound Hypothesis, strain builds up in rocks until it exceeds the elastic limit of the rocks. This causes the rock to rupture at a point, releasing energy in the form of radiating seismic waves. The study of earthquakes is called seismology and seismographs are instruments that detect, record and measure seismic waves.

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