Features of HRM It has the following features: Pervasive force: HRM is pervasive in nature. It is present in all enterprises. It permeates all levels of management in an organization. Action oriented: HRM focuses attention on action, rather than on record keeping, written procedures or rules. The problems of employees at work are solved through rational policies. Individually oriented: It tries to help employees develop their potential fully. It encourages them to give their best to the organization.
It motivates employees through a systematic process of recruitment, selection, training, training and development coupled with fair wage polices. People oriented: HRM is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results. The resultant gains are used to reward people and motivate them toward further improvements in productivity. Future oriented: Effective HRM helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well motivated employees.
Integrating mechanism: HRM tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization. In short, it tries to integrate human assets in the best possible manner in the best possible manner in the service of an organization. Auxiliary service : HR departments exist to assist and advice the line or operating managers to do their personnel work more effectively. HR manager is a specialist advisor. It is a staff function. Continuous function: according to terry, HRM is not a one shot deal.
It cannot be practiced only one hour each day or one day a week, it requires a constant alertness and awareness of human relations and their importance in every day operations. Performance Appraisal Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the work spot, normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance. It is a systematic and objective way of evaluating both work related behavior and potential of employees. It is a process that involves determining and communicating to an employee how he or she is performing the the job and ideally, establishing a plan of improvement.
Performance appraisal could be taken either for evaluating the performance of employees or for developing them. The evaluation is of two types: telling the employee where he stands and using the data for personnel decisions concerning pay, promotion, etc. the developmental objectives focus on finding individual and organizational strengths and weaknesses, developing healthy superior subordinatinate relations, and offering appropriate counseling/ coaching to the employee with a view to devlop his potential in future. Training
Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills nd abilities at the actual workplace off the job training, on the other hand , requires that trainees lern at a location other than the real workspot. Types of interview: Several types of interviews are commonly used depending on the nature and importance of the position to be filled within an organization. Non directive interview: In a non directive interview the recruiter asks questions as they come to mind. There is no specific format to be followed . he questions can take any direction. The interviewer asks board, open ended questions interruption difficulty with a non directive interview include keeping it job related and obtaining comparable data on various applicants. Directive or structured interview: In the directive interview, the recruiter uses a predetermined set of questions that are clearly job related. Since every applicant is asked the same basic questions, comparison among applications can be made more easily. Structured questions the reliability of the interview process, eliminate and errors and may even enhance he ability of a company to withstand legal challenge.
On the negative side, the whole process is somewhat mechanical, restricts the freedom of interviewers and may even convey disinterest to applicants who are used to more flexible interviews. Also designing a structured interview may take a good amount of time and energy. Situational interview: One variation of the structured interview is known as the situational interview. In this approach the applicants is confronted with a hypothetical incident and asked how he or she would respond to it. The applicant’s response is then evaluated relative to pre-established benchmark standards. Behavioral interview:
The behavioral interview focuses on actual work incidents (as against hypothetical situations in the situational interview) in the applicant’s past. The applicants is supposed to reveal what he or she did in given situation, for example, how he disciplined an employee who was smoking inside the factory premises. Stress interview In stress interview, the interviewer attempts to find how applicants would respond to aggressive embarrassing, rude and insulting questions. The whole exercise is meant to see whether the applicant can cope with highly stress-producing anxious and demanding situations while at work in a calm and composed manner.
Such an approach may backfire also, because the typical applicant is already somewhat anxious in any interview. So, the applicant that the firm wants to hire might even turn down the job offer under such trying conditions. Panel interview In a typical panel, the applicant meets with three to five interviewers who take turns asking questions. After the interview, the interviewers pool their observations to arrive at a consensus about the suitability of the applicant. The panel members can ask new and incisive questions based on their expertise and experience and elicit deeper and more meaningful response from candidates.
Such an interview could also limit the impact of the personal biases of any individual interviewer on the negative side, as an applicant, a panel interview may make you feel more stressed than usual. Legal provisions of safety to workers •Fencing of machinery (21): in every factory the dangerous parts of any machines shall be securely fenced. •Work on or near machinery in motion (22); For examining and lubricating machines while in motions. •Employment of young persons (23): No young person be allowed on dangerous machines on unless he is fully instructed about possible dangerous and precaution to be followed.
Sufficient training be provided in advance and he should be allowed to operate such machines under the guidance of an experienced supervisor. •Striking gear and devices for cutting off power (24): In every factory suitable striking gear has to be used to move driving belts steps should be taken to ensure prevention of the belt from creeping back on to the fast pulleys. Driving belts when not in use shall not be allowed to rest or ride on a shaft in motion. Suitable devices for cutting off power in an emergency shall be maintained in every room.
When a device which can inadvertently shift from off to on positions is provided in a factory to cut off power, arrangements shall e made to lock it in a safe position with a view to prevent accidental starting of the transmission machinery or an y other machines t which the device is fitted. •Self acting machines (25): No traversing part of a self acting machine in any factory and no material carried thereon shall be allowed to run on to its outward or inward traverse within a distance of 18 inches from any fixed structure which is not a part of the machine, if a person is liable to pass through the space over which it operates. Casing of new machinery (26); All machinery, driven by power installed after one 1. 4. 1949, must be engaged otherwise effectively guarded to eliminate danger to those working in the factory. •Employment of Women, Children near cotton openers (27): No women are children be employed in any part of a factory to press cotton when a cotton opener is working stop. But if the feed-end of a cotton openers is in a room which is separated from the delivery-end by partition extending to the roof are to such tight as the factory inspector may express in writing, women and children may be employed in that part of the room where the feed-end is kept. Hoists and lifts (28): In every factory hoist and lifts shall be of a good mechanical construction, sound material and adequate strength and shall be properly protected by enclosures fitted with gates. Once in every six months, it shall be thoroughly examine by the competent persons. The maximum safe working load shall be clearly indicated on every hoist or lift. A heavier load shall not be allowed to be carried on the hoist or lift. Lifting machines, chain and rope (29): The lifting machine, tackles, chains and ropes used in every factory should be of every construction, sound material and strong enough to carry the necessary loads. •Revolving machinery (30): In every room where grading job are performed, a notice shown maximum working speed of the machine shall be fixed near it. Safe working peripheral speed of every revolving vessel, pulley, basket, fly wheel, disk has to be observed and steps should be taken to see that the safe working speed is not exceeded. Pressure plant (31): If in any factory operations are carried at pressure above the atmospheric pressure proper measure shall be taken to see that safe working pressure is not exceeded. •Floors, stairs and means of access (32): All doors, steps, stairs, passages and gang ways shall be of sound construction and maintain in a state of good repair, they shall be free from obstruction likely to cause persons to slip and hand rail shall be provided wherever required. As for as possible, safe means of access to the place of work shall be provided and maintain. Pits, sumps, opening in floor (33): Every pit, tanks, sumps, fixed vessels, opening in the ground or in a floor which is a source of danger, shall be either properly covered or securely fenced. •Excessive weights (34): No persons shall be employed in any factory to lived, carry or move any load which is so heavy as to cause him a possible injury. •Protection of eyes (35): Effective screens are suitable goggles be given to workers while scrutinizing a manufacturing process involving risk of injury to eyes. Dangerous Fumes and Gases (36): No persons shall be allowed enter any chamber, tank, vat, pit or other confined space in which any gas fume, vapor or dust is likely to be present to a dangerous extent. A person can enter such a place only when it is provide with a manhole of adequate size or other effective means effective means of egress. A person can may be allowed to enter such a space only when suitable steps have been taken to remove dangerous fumes.
In case of any emergency, suitable breathing apparatus, reviving apparatus, belts and ropes be kept ready. A sufficient number of persons in the factory shall be grained in the use of all such apparatus and in the method of restring respirations. •Precautions with regard to portable electrical light (36A); No portable electric light or any other electric appliance of voltage exceeding 25 volts shall be permitted for use inside any chamber, tank, vat, pit. , glue or confined place.
If any inflammable gas, fume or dust is likely to be present in such c, tank, vat, pipe flue or any other confined space, no lamp or light other than the one which is flames-proof shall be permitted to be used inside the factory. •Explosive or inflammable gas or dust (37); In the manufacture process if any dust, gas or fume is likely to explode on ignition, preventive steps should be taken to (a) Enclose plant or machinery used in the process. (b) Remove or present the accumulation of such dust, gas, fume or vapour. c) Enclose all possible sources of ignition. Steps should also be taken to restrict the spread of effects of explosion. When such explosive items need to be open, the flow of gas or vapour should be stop through a stop volve, reduce the atmospheric pressure all the practical steps and put the loose end or removed part in respective location in a proper way. Welding or soldering of vessels containing explosive material should be done, if necessary, only after removing fumes, vapour, etc, completely.
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