Student Learning Outcomes Research Paper The student learning outcome I chose to research is the relationship between the development of oral language and the development of literacy. These are in the InTASC standards 1,2,4,5, and 8. Oral Language is the listening and speaking part of communication and is a process that develops naturally. The roots of oral language are listening, speaking, opportunities for conversation, and vocabulary development. Oral language development and vocabulary are directly linked to reading comprehension.
As a teacher it will be your job to provide opportunities and support for students to develop their oral language. Oral Language lays the foundation for reading comprehension. Students have to be able to understand language at the oral level in order to be expected to understand it at the text level. If a student can only understand a 6 word sentence orally then they will only be able to understand those 6 words they read in a book. Oral language begins very early. Even before babies can say words they begin to coo and make sounds that develop into words. Parents should talk to babies and tell them the names of objects.
Encouraging babies to say syllabus and repetitive sounds like “mama” and “dada” are great ways to begin oral development. If I child never hears any words or language spoken to them then how can they ever be expected to speak that language. As a teacher you should incorporate the following into your classroom to encourage oral language development; engage children in extended conversations, encourage children to tell and retell stories and events, discuss a wide range of topics and word meanings, use new and unusual words, ask open-ended questions, encourage language play.
Some things for students to do to develop their oral language are; explore and experiment with language, name and describe objects in the classroom, ask and answer why, who, what, when, where and how questions, hear good models of language use, and discuss topics of interest. Oral vocabulary is key when a beginning reader makes the transition from oral to written forms. Between grades 1 and 3, it is estimated that economically disadvantaged students’ vocabularies increase by about 3,000 words per year and middle-class students’ vocabularies increase by about 5,000 words per year.
As a teacher you should recognize which of your students have a less environmentally rich home life and compensate for that. Also you should be aware of students that are not from English speaking homes. If the only place a student hears and reads English is at school, they are going to develop their vocabulary slower than a student who hears the language both at home and school. (Kieffer 146-157) Oral language and the development of literacy are interconnected and inextricably linked.
Students need an environment which engages them in the literary practices of their community in which they live, interact and learn. The relationship, then, is between everyday talk and literary language. For example, small children will mimic its parents gesturing. I can not state enough that oral language and literacy greatly compliment each other as a child develops their communication skills. In our schools teachers teach children to read and write by listening for the sounds in words and predicting the letters that are used to make those sounds.
Sound-symbol relationship and phonemic awareness are very important developments for young children to be successful with the literacy curriculum. Children learn to understand and verbally express language at a very rapid pace, beginning with their first moments of life. Literacy development is obviously not expected from children until they enter school. Like oral language, there is a wide range of “normalcy” when it comes to the age a child will reach each milestone. Basically, each domain supports the other.
Children whose articulation is poor often improve greatly when they are able to read, as the letters help them learn to produce the correct sounds and to sequence them appropriately. Likewise, children who have a good vocabulary and are good at spoken language will often become very successful readers. According to an article I found “key principles that were applied in the study to enable the development of a community of practice focused on information literacy integration. These principles can be summarized as: 1. nowledge is socially constructed and the social nature of cognitive development serves as a powerful dialogic model for understanding how IL could be integrated into the curriculum in a community of practice; 2. tools play an important role in these social interactions in curriculum integration; 3. internalization can serve as a powerful model when data is generated and analyzed using this research approach. ” (Dawkins , and O’Neill 294-307) Reading comprehension depends on language abilities that have been developing since birth.
Basic vocabulary and grammar are clearly essential to comprehension because each enables understanding of words and their interrelationships in and across individual sentences in a text. However, children who comprehend well go beyond word and sentence comprehension to construct a representation of the situation or state of affairs described by the text. In some theories, this is referred to as a mental model and it involves organizing a text’s multiple ideas into an integrated whole, using both information from the text and the reader’s own world knowledge.
To do this, successful comprehend draw upon a set of higher-level cognitive and linguistic skills, including inferencing, monitoring comprehension, and using text structure knowledge. Take the following story for example: “Johnny carried a jug of water. He tripped on a step. Mom grabbed the mop. ” The literal representation of the individual words and sentences does not enable the reader to integrate their meanings and construct a mental model. Successful comprehenders understand narrative structure and couple it with their knowledge to infer that Johnny spilled the water.
They then understand why Mom grabbed a mop. They also monitor their comprehension of stories-either written or spoken-and realize the need to make an inference that Johnny spilled the water to make sense of Mom’s response. (Justice, Guo, Kaderavek, and Dobbs-Oates 420-429) Literacy refers to the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently, and think critically about the written word. So lets think about this situation as an example of how oral language and literacy are connected. A student who is born in Mexico moves to the United States during 1st grade.
Would you expect this student to read or write English? Of course not! So if this student came to your school never even having heard English would you just give them a book with only English words and no pictures and expect them to read it? Defiantly not! Would you give them a piece of paper and pen and expect them to write what they want in English? No way! Would you talk in normal sentences and expect a correct English reply? I hope not! So what would you do? Well having done research I would first find a student who also knows Spanish so that they can communicate and the new student wont feel alone.
Students need to feel safe and comfortable in able to learn. Learning the letters is one of the next steps I would take in teaching the student to read, write and speak English. Saying the sound and pointing to the written letter then having the student trace the letter and say the sound. See how the oral and written process work together? They are both a process that are always developing. As humans we are always learning new words and vocabulary. I hope this paper has taught you a little bit about what I have learned about oral language and literacy development.
This is a big point that I have learned a lot about this semester. I never really thought about how much the two are related until I started to research it and found so many different articles. I don’t think anyone can really argue that the two are not related. Just look at your own life and how you first learned to talk and read. Look at things in this class for example. We have learned vocabulary words not familiar to us. We were shown these words and told how they are pronounced so that now you can recognize the word in text and also pronounce the word when talking. Student Learning Outcomes Research Paper