The human resource department plays a major role in helping plan the system and in developing job description, job specification and performance standards. Specialists in that department may be assigned to conduct job analysis and write job descriptions in cooperation with managers, supervisors and employees. The human resource department is not involved in the actual writing of performance standards but play a diagnostic, training and monitoring role.
JOB DESIGN Job design is a process of determining the specific tasks and responsibilities to be carried out by each member of the organization.In simple words, the logical sequence to job analysis is job design. Job analysis provides job-related data as well as the skills and knowledge expected of the incumbent to discharge the job. Job analysis, then, involves conscious efforts to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives. Fig: Factors Affecting Job Design Factors Affecting Job Design Job design is affected by organizational, environmental, behavioural factors. A properly designed job will make it productive and satisfying.If a job fails on this count, the fault lies with the job designers who, based on the feedback, must redesign the job.
(See Fig) Techniques of Job Design Fig: Techniques of Job Design ?Work Simplification: In this technique, the job simplified or specialized. A given job is broken down into small sub-parts and each part is assigned to one individual. ?Job Rotation: Job rotation implies movement of employees from job to job. Jobs remain unchanged, but incumbents shift. With job rotation, a given employee performs different jobs, but more or less, jobs of the same nature. Job Enlargement: Job enlargement involves expanding the number of tasks or duties assigned to a given job. Job enlargement is naturally opposite to work simplification.
Adding more tasks or duties to a job does not mean that new skills and abilities are needed to perform it. ?Job Enrichment: Job enrichment seeks to improve both task efficiency and human satisfaction by building into people’s jobs, quite specifically, greater scope for personal achievement and recognition, more challenging and responsible work, and more opportunity for individual advancement and growth. Autonomous or Self-directed Teams: A self-directed work team is an intact group of employees who are responsible for a whole work process or segment that delivers a products or service o an internal or external customer. ?High-Performance Work Design: It is a means of improving performance in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set. Role of Human Resource Department The human resources department’s role in job design is usually indirect, although job design influences almost every aspect of human resources management.The department diagnoses organizational problems that suggest job redesign, incorporate information on job design in training and management development programs, and help plan job redesign programs to ensure that sound human resources policies and practices are developed. Further, the department is needed to prepare to modify job descriptions and job specifications and to modify recruitment, selection, training, compensation and other practices to be consistent with any job redesign program.