Undoubtedly, education plays a significant role in every aspect of people’s lives. In other words, all through history, education and psychology have powerful methods for learning pieces of information. Also, these two efficient ways are vital for those who are eager to improve their behavior and knowledge.
As a matter of fact, learning has been defined in several methods by a number of different theories. Theories of learning can help instructors to decide and select the suitable ways for their educational structure. Many scholars have commented on how behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism have influenced the research in the field of educational technology.
Behaviorism is a psychological approach which describes all behavior in terms of learning. This theory focuses on behavior. In addition, in this approach, cognition like thoughts is totally ignored. Also, it is a theory of animal and human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts mental activities.
Without a doubt, this approach has a numerous ascendency, such as providing a number of practical applications and techniques to shape conduct. As far as I concerned, giving a prize to those whose behavior is appropriate is the best deed, and also it can cause others especially children to shape and enhance not only their behavior, but also their activities. However, besides all these positive features, it has some disadvantages, but two of which are more significant.
For instance, based on this theory, learning can be defined as “the relatively permanent change in behavior brought about as a result of experience or practice.” Obviously, this approach has had a long lasting impact on language teaching, but it has some negative points. To illustrate, people can change their conduct when they are either exposure to new environment or get new information, even if they have previously established a different behavior through reinforcement. In addition, behaviorists claim, “Human has passive learners.”, but, psychologists are appose to this assertion. They believe human are active agnates, and they are able to think and determine.
In my opinion, this theory is really useful and practical in elementary schools, because children in this grade cannot distinguish between right and wrong, so they need a person who monitor them. In other words, they need a leadership. On the other hand, behaviorism is not essential for higher grades, because these kind of people are active, and they already have learned and known what the best method is.
Cognitivism, like behaviorism, emphasizes the role that environmental conditions play in facilitating learning. Cognitive psychologies tend to think of the brain as an active participating component in the learning process. . This theory focused on the inner mental activities of human beings to understand how people learn. In fact, behaviorists saw humans as programmed animals, but cognitivists viewed them as rational beings.
The best feature in this theory is that cognitivism assists people who really wants to shape their behavior and tries to develop their conduct for the better. Due to the fact that, this approach focuses on brain’s function, it is really beneficial and helpful. On the other hand, cognitive approach denies other factor which influences behavior, such as, genes and individual experiences. Owning to assuming all human conduct are equal, it is the biggest weakness that this theory has.
I think that, this theory can be more practical than behaviorism. Due to the fact that, it is able to combine to other approaches can be effective and helpful method in all schools especially Iranian students. Also, because it does not focuses on just one thing and analyze human in other perspective, Iranian student are more successful when educational system applies this approach in schools. Therefore, according to all things that it was mentioned-above, cognitivism has abundant positive results in Iranian educational system.
Constructivism considers the learning to be an active. Even though constructivism is considered to be a branch of cognitivism (both conceive of learning as a mental activity), it distinguishes itself from traditional cognitive theories in a number of ways.
One of the superb factors in this approach can be pointed out is that students are active, and all of them participate in every activities, such as discussion and practicing. It is believed that group working is one the best effective ways to progress in every field. Also, this action is tough provoking, and it is kind of a challenge for students to try hard to achieve their goals. However, this way is only suitable for those who are genius, and they can analyze their problems individually.
In other words, it can be practical for people who can deal with every problem without any assistance, so they are really successful with this approach. Furthermore, this method is not handy for students or other people whose knowledge are lees, and they are not in favor of group activities. Hence, they might fail at their courses or they may just imitate what others do, so they do not learn anything. In this case, constructivism has negative results. Consequently, constructive approach depends on people’s characteristic.
In my point of view, this approach is the best theory in contrast with other theories. Although it has some negative points, advantages outweigh disadvantages. However, constructivist approach is not appropriate for Iranian educational system. Unfortunately, Iranian are intrapersonal, and they prefer to do their activities individually. On the other hand, Iranian student are in favor of teacher-centered. Owning to focusing student-center in this way, our society disagrees with it. In addition, due to lack of capacity of some of Iranian student, this theory is not successful in our education.
In short, it is not deniable that these three approaches are beneficial and try to help students improve their education and behavior. Obviously, each of these theories works for each student, and they have different ways and attitudes to how these theories accelerate learning. As it was above mentioned, all these three schools of thought has their own strengths and weaknesses, but I think constructivism is like a new invention in education. As far as I concerned, if I were a teacher, I would definitely choose the constructivism theory because it is crucial that students be more active in their lesson and become independent. Also, this way causes increase students’ motivation to study well.
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