Chapter 15 The West and the Changing Balance of Power Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following was NOT a symptom of decline in the Arabic caliphate by 1400? A) The narrowing of intellectual life symbolized by the triumph of religion over literature, philosophy, and science B) Landlords seized power over peasants C) The decline of the Sufis D) Decline of tax revenues for the state E) Landlords ceased to experiment with new agricultural techniques. 2) By what date had the Arabs been virtually excluded from European trade? A) 900 B) 1000 C) 1100 D) 1350 E) 1453 ) Which of the following statements concerning Arabic trade after 1100 is most accurate? A) Arabic control of the seas was strengthened following 1100. B) Although Arabic trade was reduced, Muslims remained active in world markets. C) The total collapse of the Islamic world in the 12th century can best be compared to the fall of the Roman Empire. D) The Arab trading complex was reduced after 1100 to the Middle East. E) Their economic decline could be compared to that of Rome. 4) Which of the following statements concerning the political fragmentation of the Arabic world in the 1400s is most accurate?
A) After the fall of the Abbasid caliphate, the emerging Ottoman Empire soon mastered most of the lands of the old caliphate plus the Byzantine corner. B) The political fragmentation caused by the fall of Baghdad lasted for several centuries under the decentralized administration of the Seljuk Turks. C) The Mongol conquests eliminated any form of centralized government in the Middle East until the 17th century. D) Following the fall of the Abbasid caliphate, the Middle East became part of the colonial empire of the emerging feudal states of western Europe.
E) The political system was chaotic for 300 years until the rise of a new political order under the Ottoman Turks. 5) Which of the following statements concerning the Ottoman Empire is most accurate? A) The rise of the Ottoman Empire restored the full international vigor that the Islamic caliphate had possessed. B) Turkish rulers promoted trade more actively than did their Arab predecessors. C) The expansionist power of the Ottoman Empire was very real, but the focus on conquest and administration overshadowed wider commercial ambitions. D) The Ottoman Empire had no expansionist interests or capabilities.
E) The Ottomans competed with western Europe for Atlantic trade. 6) What area represented a new conquest for the Ottoman Empire in the late 1400s? A) Asia Minor B) North Africa C) Southeastern Europe D) Mesopotamia E) Russia 7) Which of the following statements concerning the Ottoman Empire is most accurate? A) Turkish rulers did not promote maritime trade as vigorously as had the Arabs. B) Scientific and philosophical investigations reached the level of innovation that they had enjoyed under the Abbasids. C) The Turks refused to patronize the traditional Persian artists and craftsmen who had dominated the later Abbasid court.
D) The Ottomans were more interested in cultural patronage than in military organization. E) The Ottomans never mastered the full territorial extent of the old caliphate. 8) Which of the following civilizations first attempted to fill the commercial vacuum created by the decline in Arabic trade? A) Russia B) Japan C) China D) India E) Sub-Saharan Africa 9) What Chinese dynasty succeeded the Mongol Yuan dynasty in China? A) Chou B) Ming C) Han D) Tang E) Qing 10) What was the innovation launched by the Ming dynasty? A) Receiving tribute payments from Korea and Japan B) Extending their political control over Vietnam and Korea
C) Use of a centralized bureaucracy but under the direct control of the emperor D) Mounting huge, state-sponsored trading expeditions throughout Asia and beyond E) The use of gunpowder weapons on both land and naval vessels 11) In what year did the Ming dynasty halt state-sponsored commercial voyages? A) 1358 B) 1405 C) 1433 D) 1487 E) 1453 12) What admiral commanded China? s great overseas expeditions between 1405 and 1433? A) Zhenghe B) Jung Tzi Lung C) Xun Xi D) Yan Xuanshang E) Chenla Khmer 13) Which of the following was NOTa reason used by the Ming dynasty to halt the trading expeditions?
A) The opposition of the scholar-gentry and bureaucracy B) The technological inferiority of Chinese ships and navigation C) The growing military expenses of the campaigns against the Mongols D) The traditional preference of the Chinese for Asian products E) The expense of building the new capital in Beijing 14) Which of the following statements concerning the cessation of state-sponsored trade by the Ming dynasty is most accurate? A) The cessation of trade severely damaged the internal economy of China and produced the inevitable peasant revolutions that overthrew the Ming dynasty.
B) The end of international trade signaled a general decentralization of government in Ming China. C) Because of the Chinese dependence on imports from abroad, the decision to end the state-sponsored expeditions was particularly critical in initiating cultural decline. D) In Chinese terms, it was the brief emphasis on trading and commerce that was unusual, not its cessation. E) China had long emphasized internal development at the expense of trade. 15) Which of the following was NOT a drawback to the West? s emergence as a global power? A) Western nations lacked the political coherence and organizing ability of imperial China.
B) The West did not begin to establish key maritime and commercial links until after 1600. C) The Catholic church, long one of the organizing institutions of Western civilization, was under attack. D) The lives and economic activities of ordinary Europeans, the artisans and peasants, were in serious disarray. E) Population loss caused further economic disarray and lack of strong leadership. 16) Which of the following was NOT a contributing factor to the economic crises of the 14th century? A) Withdrawal from the global trading network B) Bubonic plague C) Lack of technological advance in agriculture D) Recurrent famine
E) Labor shortages 17) What proportion of the European population died as a result of the 14th century plague? A) One tenth B) One fourth C) One third D) One half E) One eighth 18) Which of the following was NOT a source of Western dynamism in the 14th and 15th centuries? A) The strengthening of feudal monarchy B) The growth of cities and urban economies C) Advances in metallurgy D) Two centuries of peace among the major European nations E) A cultural reawakening 19) Strong regional monarchies took hold in the decades around 1400 in A) Russia and Poland. B) the Ottoman Empire. C) Spain and Portugal.
D) Germany and Austria. E) Italy and Greece. 20) In what region of Europe did the Renaissance begin? A) Germany B) Italy C) France D) England E) Spain 21) In comparison to medieval culture, Renaissance culture was A) more concerned with Aristotelian philosophy. B) more concerned with things of the earthly world. C) disinterested in classical models. D) based less on urban vitality and expanding commerce. E) more other-worldly and religious. 22) Which of the following was NOT one of the reasons that Italy emerged as the center of the early Renaissance? A) Italy was spared the Black Plague due to its geographic location.
B) Italy retained more contact with Roman traditions than did the rest of Europe. C) Italy led the West by the 14th century in banking and trade. D) Italy had closer contacts with foreign scholars, particularly those in late Byzantium. E) Italy was more urbanized than most of Europe. 23) What Florentine painter led the way in the movement toward nature and people as the primary subject matter of Renaissance art? A) Giotto B) Petrarch C) Masaccio D) Fra Angelico E) Boccaccio 24) What Italian city-state was best placed to engage in the new, Western-oriented commercial ventures of the 15th century? A) Rome B) Florence C) Genoa
D) Pisa E) Padua 25) Along with Italy, a key center for change in the 14th and 15th centuries was A) France. B) Germany. C) England. D) the Iberian peninsula. E) Austria. 26) What was unique about the development of states in the Iberian peninsula? A) These governments were based on city-states rather than nation-states. B) Based on Castile and Aragon, the Iberian states were unique in their adoption of Islam. C) Spain and Portugal developed effective new governments with a special sense of religious mission and religious support. D) The states of Spain and Portugal were able to develop without emphasis on the military.
E) They had never participated in the feudal practices of the Middle Ages which made them more open to change. 27) What was the Western response to the problems of international trade that they experienced in 1400? A) Western nations halted trade with Asia and the East and became more dependent on European-produced commodities. B) Many nations sought to establish alliances with the Ottoman Empire in order to restore the trade routes. C) Overland trade routes through northern Russia were established to the East. D) Western nations began explorations of alternative routes to Asia that would bypass the Middle East and Muslim realms.
E) They began to pull back from all but regional trade networks found in the eastern Mediterranean. 28) The key theme of Polynesian culture from the 7th century to 1400 was A) the adoption of Japanese civilization in the island societies. B) the development of a uniform written script. C) contraction as a result of the world-wide epidemic of the 14th century. D) spurts of migration and conquest that spread beyond the initial base in the Society Islands. E) large-scale expeditions of discovery which were aimed at establishing colonies in South America. 29) Which of the following was NOT characteristic of Hawaiian culture? A) Urbanization
B) Animal husbandry featuring swine C) Warlike regional kingdoms D) Highly stratified social structure E) Use of imported animals such as pigs 30) Which of the following represents a significant difference between New Zealand and Hawaii? A) Art based on carved wood B) A cold and harsh climate C) A highly stratified society D) A society based on warfare E) Tribal military leaders 31) The practice of judging other peoples by the standards and practices of one? s own culture of ethnic group is A) ethnocentrism. B) genocide. C) anthropomorphism. D) aversionism. E) localism. 32) Which of the following statements is most accurate?
A) Without European intervention, there is no reason to believe that the Inca and Aztec empires could not have survived for several more centuries. B) Without European interference, the likelihood is that the Inca Empire would have overwhelmed the Aztecs and established a unified government in the Americas. C) Because of internal weaknesses, both the Inca and the Aztec empires were receding and might not have survived, even if the Europeans had not arrived. D) Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, both the Inca and the Aztec empires had been replaced by other, indigenous governments.
E) Both the Inca and the Aztecs stopped exploiting subject peoples after 1500 due to the intervention of the Black Plague. 33) Which of the following was NOT a result of the European contact with sub-Saharan Africa after 1500? A) Trade patterns in west Africa shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic B) Trade shifted in west Africa from Muslim to European hands C) Seizure of slaves for European use affected many regions deeply D) Regional kingdoms lost all influence in west Africa and were replaced by European governments E) European weapons played an increasing role in the tribal conflicts between north and south.