Write 2 pages with APA style on REPORT OF NURSING. Causes and Effects of Stress Stress has been reportedly a difficult term to define due to the variety of factors that apparently affect diverse kinds of people. According to the American Institute of Stress, the most applicable definition of stress is that which was coined by a certain Hans Selye in 1936, whose meaning of the term was disclosed as “the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change” (Selye, 1950. cited in American Institute of Stress, n.d., par. 2). The objective of the current mini assignment is to determine the cause and effect of stress that have been linked to various diseases. Initially, some relevant statistics on stress in America would be presented prior to expounding on the causes and effects, as required.

Statistics on Stress

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The statistics on stress have been monitored by Stress in America where the results have been published in the official website of the American Psychological Association (APA) as patterns were reportedly decreasing, over the past five years, as shown in Figure 1, below:

Figure 1: Stress Over the Past 5 Years

Source: APA, 2012

Likewise, the report revealed that “more than 9 in 10 (94 percent) adults believe that stress can contribute to the development of major illnesses, such as heart disease, depression and obesity, and that some types of stress can trigger heart attacks, arrhythmias and even sudden death, particularly in people who already have cardiovascular disease (92 percent)” (APA, 2012, par. 12). The health-related concerns have been proven to be triggered by stress factors as presented below:

Causes of Stress

The causes of stress was clearly illustrated in Figure 2 as ranging from financial factors, work, the status of the economy, relationships, responsibilities in the family, health problems that affect one’s family members, personal health problems, job stability, costs of housing, and personal safety, in decreasing order.

Figure 2: Causes of Stress

Source: APA, 2012

Effects of Stress

Due to the determined causes of stress, the APA has enumerated that the manifestations of the following symptoms have detailed the effects of stress on diverse individuals, as shown in Figure 3:

Figure 3: Effects of Stress Manifested through Physical Symptoms

Source: APA, 2012

The statistics revealed that in 2011, people become increasingly irritable or prone to anger (42%). feels nervous or anxious (39%). are easily fatigued (37%). feels depressed or sad (37%). have manifested lack of interest or motivation (35%). develops headache (32%). tendencies to cry (30%). complains of upset stomach or indigestion (24%) and exemplifies muscular tension (24%). These all confirm that different causes of stress directly impact people, as manifested through the physical and health concerns, as identified above.

Reference List

American Institute of Stress. N.d. Stress, Definition of Stress, Stressor, What is Stress? Eustress? [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 13 March 2012].

American Psychological Association (APA). 2012. The Impact of Stress, [Online]. Available at: [Accessed 13 March 2012].

Selye, H. 1950. The physiology and pathology of exposure to stress: A treatise based on the concepts of the general-adaptation-syndrome and the diseases of adaptation. Acta.

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