250 wrds apa
Risks are uncertainties that exist which can have a negative or positive impact on a project. Discuss risk issues related to the categories of cost, schedule, and resources and how they might have a positive or negative effect on the success of an IT project.
250 words apa
human computer interaction
All of you have used the more common interaction designs discussed so far. For this discussion board, discuss your use of some of the less frequently used or more specialized interaction designs. What was the task? Were you an expert or a user? What devices or design interactions might be utilized by the audience of your course project learning module? Justify your answers.
Unit Lesson What we have learned so far is that interface design can improve a user’s experience with something such as a device, software, or program. In this context, interface design had a tremendous role in transforming desktop computers into the popular mobile devices we enjoy today. These devices allow users to collaborate and communicate in ways that were not possible a decade ago. A decade ago, mobile devices, such as the cell phone, were not developed for the everyday consumer because of the huge price tag. Instead, they were used by corporations and businesses for e-mail and voice communications. As communications technology evolved, so did the mobile device. Cellular phones became smaller, more affordable, and with more features than its predecessors such as web capabilities, gaming, and texting abilities. Using the mobile phone as an example, interface design is crucial to its success. Creating successful interactive designs requires some type of process. In previous courses, you learned about the systems development life cycle (SDLC). The SDLC is part of the systems analysis process and consists of several phases as the system progresses through design, implementation, and retirement. In short, you will be more successful if you are able to analyze the system, determine the user requirements, design and develop the system, test the system, deploy the system, and document all of its features accurately. The SDLC process usually consists of five phases: the planning phase, the analysis phase, the design phase, the implementation phase, and then the maintenance phase (Preece, Rogers, & Sharp, 2015). Interactive design basically uses the same framework; there is an inception phase, a requirements-analysis phase, a preliminary design phase, an implementation phase, an evaluation phase, and then a deployment phase. The figure below illustrates a framework that can be used in the interface design process. In this development process, we outlined six phases, so let’s take a look at each one. Inception The inception phase can also be considered the planning phase. This is where the concept or the idea is developed (Preece et al., 2015). Think of how homes are built; you cannot just grab a hammer and some nails and lumber and start building a house. First, you need to plan; in the house concept, you would need to decide what kind of house you want; will it be brick, stone, wood, or siding? Next, you need to select a design: cottage, colonial, duplex, modern, and so on. You probably get the idea here; there are many things to think about, and this is where it all starts. For interface design, this is also where the design team is created and where a schedule and a budget or cost analysis is developed. This phase also determines what is wrong with the current design or provides a justification for a new design. Once a team is developed, they will need to select a development methodology to guide designers through all the phases of the development life cycle. Requirements In the requirements-analysis phase, all of the requirements for the design are obtained and recorded in a requirements specification document. Methods for collecting or obtaining these requirements vary from surveys, field observations, and interviews (Preece et al., 2015). For interaction design, there are three components that need to be analyzed and documented. Functional requirements: These are the requirements that the system is expected to perform (Preece et al., 2015). For example, in an online store (website), visitors should be able to browse and purchase items. Non-functional requirements: These are criteria that govern certain processes (Preece et al., 2015). For example, when visiting a website, users should be able to access their account information. User experience requirements: These are non-functional requirements for user interaction (Preece et al., 2015). For example, when users shop online, there should be some type of navigation to assist the user. Concept/Design In this phase, the concept and design is realized from the requirements phase (Preece et al., 2015). First, the concept of the idea is born and then a more detailed design of the system or application is derived. The result of this interaction is the creation of a design document. In this document, different aspects of the interface are mapped out, such as interface displays, user controls, navigation, and other components of the system. ITC 3302, Human Computer Interaction 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title This phase is often referred to as conceptual design because this is where the design is illustrated in some form (such as a table, map, diagram, or some other illustrative format) to obtain a visual view of the overall design concept. This is useful because, even though the requirements have been realized, users of the system will have no idea what the finished product will look like or how it will perform. Therefore, it is important at this stage to obtain ideas from users what the system should look like or give the users some impression of what the system will look like. This can be done through the use of storyboarding. Storyboards are the designers’ concepts of what the system will look like. In game design, this could be an illustration of the opening story, character designs, and quest and world designs. Implementation This is the stage where the conceptual design from the previous phase is turned into the actual product (Preece et al., 2015). For example, the web development was completed, and you now have a running web store or all of the coding has been completed for a game application. Even though the product has been completed, it is not final. There are still some steps to complete before it is ready for deployment. Evaluation In this phase, the completed system is tested and validated to ensure that it meets all of the requirements as stated in the requirements document (Preece et al., 2015). The results of the evaluation are recorded in an evaluation report. In this process, each use case is tested to ensure that each use case process can be performed successfully. In other words, let us say one use case is the shopping process. The user should be able to select a product, put it in a shopping cart, check out, pay for the item, make a shipping selection, and receive a purchase confirmation to close out the process. In a gaming process, let’s use the character process as an example. The user should be able to access a character creation screen; select characteristics for the character such as abilities, race, color of hair; and then complete the development with the creation of the character. This is also the phase where problems can be found and corrected before the system is deployed. For example, a broken link on a web page can be corrected so that it works properly, or a game component can be added to correct a problematic quest process. Deployment In this phase, the system is deployed to the customer to ensure that all documentation has been completed (Preece et al., 2015). This is also where training takes place and where imperfections in the system can be identified. For example, users can be trained in using the new web interface, and gamers can use a tutorial to help them better understand the nuances of the game. Maintenance can also be carried out in this phase. This includes patches to fix minor bugs in programming or updates to enhance current processes. This is also where improvements can be made to interfaces to make them easier to use and to add features to enhance their capabilities. Summary In this lesson, you learned about the processes involved in interface design and that interface design is a crucial component in any interactive device. The interface design process follows the same framework as the SDLC process: requirements, design, implementation, evaluation, and deployment. Even though the five phases are different from phases of the SDLC process, this only demonstrates the dynamic nature of this process. You can tailor the life cycle process to meet your needs, but in its basic form, it must have a beginning, middle, and end. We covered each of these phases in detail. The requirements phase is where the requirements for the system or application are gathered and recorded into a requirements document. The design phase is where the requirements are developed into a preliminary design of the system. The implementation phase is where the product is built. The evaluation phase is where the product is evaluated and tested to ensure that it meets the requirements as stated in the requirements document. Lastly, the product is then deployed to the customer. In this phase, patches and updates can be administered to fix bugs and to enhance the product. Design frameworks (e.g., user-centered design, participatory design, agile interaction design) are unique design processes used in constructing interface designs. These designs will be discussed more in Unit VII. In the beginning of the lesson, the example of building a house explains why using a process for your interface design is important. You must plan first, put it all together, and then check to be sure that the design meets
GUIDE Title the requirements. Regardless of the design process used, these methods are important in the overall process of interface design.
Reference Preece, J., Rogers, Y., & Sharp, H. (2015). Interaction design: Beyond human-computer interaction (4th ed.). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley.
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