Questions on Psychology

1. Which of the following statements most accurately represents the use of plant-based psychoactive substances?

A. Plant-based psychoactive drugs are uncommon today and rarely used.

B. Today marijuana is the only plant-based psychoactive substance that is still used.
C. All plants that yield psychoactive substances are illegal today.
D. About 4,000 plants yield psychoactive substances, and the vast majority are not illegal.

2. The Gin Epidemic…

E. is a myth
F. was brought under control through high taxes and the strict regulation of the sale of gin
G. devastated the Middle East
H. is a current problem

3. The British encouraged the planting of hemp in the new American colonies for which of the following reasons?

I. to provide England with strong fibers from which it could make rope and sails for its ships
J. to produce psychoactive drugs derived from cannabis that could be sold to other countries
K. to ensure that the colonists would be high most of the time and therefore easier to control
L. as a means of payment to slave laborers

4. Listed below are three different sequential variations of drugs in the opiate family.
Which one accurately represents the order in which the drugs were discovered and used (from left to right, representing the oldest to newest drug forms).

M. opium, heroin, morphine
N. morphine, opium, hydromorphone
O. opium, morphine, heroin
P. hydromorphone, morphine, heroin 5. According to the authors of Uppers, Downers, All Arounders, a psychoactive drug is defined as…
Q. any substance that directly alters the normal functioning of the central nervous system
R. any substance that is illicit or illegal
S. those substance that causes numbness and drowsiness
T. hose substances that cause increased energy and alertness

6. The most rapid route of administering a drug to reach the brain is intravenous.

U. true
V. false

7. To titrate a drug means to continuously regulate the amount of drug you are receiving.

W. true
X. false

8. The physical, mental, and emotional effects a person experiences from taking psychoactive drugs are caused by the modification or mimicking of the neurotransmitters’ function.

Y. true
Z. false

9. A person’s level of emotional and physical stress can increase the ability of psychoactive drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier.

true
false

10. Active transport occurs when fat-soluble drugs pass from an area where there is a higher concentration of a drug to an area of lower concentration.

true
false

11. Passive transport occurs when water-soluble drugs such as cocaine cross the blood-brain barrier by hitching a ride on molecules that cross the blood-brain barrier.

true
false

12. Regardless of which method a person uses to consume a psychoactive drug, the drug reaches the brain through the bloodstream.

a. true
b. false

13. The more rapidly a psychoactive drug reaches its central nervous system target, the less the reward and the lower the reinforcing effect.

c. true
d. false

14. The central nervous system is composed of the spinal cord and the brain.

e. true
f. false

15. The compulsive gambler’s reward/control pathway in the brain becomes hijacked similar to the ways the brain becomes rewired from alcohol and other drug addiction.

g. true
h. false

16. On which part of the body does the long-term use of stimulants (e. g. , nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine) have the most significant impact?

i. skeletal system
j. muscular system
k. digestive system . cardiovascular system

17. The neurotransmitter most often involved in the use of strong stimulants is dopamine, which triggers feelings of…

m. hunger satisfaction/satiety
n. apathy
o. extreme thirst
p. emotional depression

18. Cocaine epidemics…

q. last for centuries
r. occur in cycles every few generations
s. are fictitious
t. have been exaggerated

19. Which form and method of using cocaine produce the most intense immediate high?

u. chewing pure coca leaves
v. snorting powdered cocaine
w. smoking crack cocaine
x. ingestion of cocaine in a beverage 20.

20. How long will the high from snorting a typical dose of powder cocaine (0. 2 to 0. 5 grams) generally last?

y. 1-minute
z. 5 to 20 minutes {. 40 to 60 minutes |. 2 to 3 hours

21. How long will the high from smoking a typical dose of crack cocaine (1 rock) generally last?

1-minute ~.
5 to 20 minutes
40 to 60 minutes
2 to 3 hours

22. How long will the high from a typical oral or snorted dose of amphetamine generally last?

40 to 60 minutes
1 to 2 hours
2 to 3 hours
4 to 6 hours

23. The illicit manufacture and distribution of methamphetamine in the United States today is due to the involvement of….

iker gangs like the Hell’s Angels
renegade pharmaceutical and industrial chemists.
Mexican gangs and drug cartels
Colombian cartels

24. Continued smoking to avoid the negative effects of nicotine withdrawal is known as…

inverse tolerance
negative drug reinforcement
positive drug reinforcement
reverse tolerance

25. Which of the following best describes how the first cigarette of the day affects a smoker?

increases blood pressure and heart rate
stimulates appetite
satisfies the nicotine craving for the rest of the day
all of the above

26. What is the half-life of caffeine?

a. 40 minutes
b. 1 to 2 hours
c. 3 to 7 hours
d. 24 to 48 hours

27. Among those who try a cigarette, what percentage will become daily habitual smokers?

a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 50%
d. 80%

28. Which of the following best describes one of the health benefits of quitting smoking?

a. The risk of heart attack is eliminated within a week of quitting.
b. Lung cancer rates to drop to the rate of nonsmokers after 40 years of nonsmoking.
c. Within just 20 minutes of quitting, blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature of hands and feet drop to normal.
d. Within five days coughing, sinus congestion, and shortness of breath decrease.

29. Drinking alcohol before using cocaine will do which of the following?

1. prolong and intensify cocaine’s effects
2. cancel each other out because one is a stimulant and one is a depressant
3. create cocaethylene, which increases violent tendencies
4. create narcalon, which decreases the stimulant effects of cocaine.

results 2 and 4 only. results 1 and 3 only. results 1, 2, 3, and 4. none of the above
30. Prolonged use of strong stimulants (e. g. , cocaine, methamphetamine) results in which of the following?

1. depletion of the body’s energy resources
2. enhancement of the body’s energy resources
3. cellular and organ damage
4. paranoia.

results 1 and 4 only. results 2, 3, and 4 only. results 1, 3, and 4 only. results 2 and 3 only
31. The primary illegitimate source for obtaining prescription drugs, such as OxyContin, Vicodin, and Xanax, is over the Internet.

a. true
b. false

32. The number of people in the United States who overdose on heroin is greater than the number who overdose on any other type of opioid, including hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone.

a. true
b. false

33. Treatment for addiction to opiates requires physical detoxification and psychological correction.

a. true
b. false

34. Using a needle continuously to inject drugs in the same blood vessels can cause them to collapse.

a. true
b. false

35. An individual who is under the influence of heroin will have dilated pupils.

a. true
b. false

36. Depressants affect the central nervous system by elevating the user’s blood pressure, pulse, heart rate, and respiration.

a. true
b. false

37. Tolerance to one type of depressant, such as alcohol, can lead to the development of cross-tolerance for another depressant, such as benzodiazepines.

a. true
b. false

38. Human beings have naturally occurred (endogenous) opioids, which cause many of the same effects as those caused by taking opioid drugs (exogenous).

a. true
b. false

39. The majority of heroin available in the United States comes from Afghanistan.

a. true
b. false

40. Opiates block the release of substance P, which is the name of the neurotransmitter that transmits pain messages from nerve cell to nerve cell.

a. true
b. false

41. The “stop” switch in the brain, which tells your mind and body that it has had enough and disrupts the addictive cycle, is located in the brain stem.

a. true
b. false

42. Overdose deaths involving opioids most commonly include their combined use with other legal or licit substances like alcohol, benzodiazepines, or antidepressants.

a. true
b. false

43. One of the symptoms of chronic opiate use is itchy skin.

a. true
b. false

44. Law enforcement and treatment personnel can get a strong indication of what type of drug a person is using from the size of his pupils.

a. true
b. false

45. Opioids, such as hydrocodone (Vicodin), usually suppress nausea and vomiting.

a. true
b. false

46. Psychedelics come only from natural plant sources.

a. true
b. false

47. Synesthesia is defined as the crossing of senses, such as when visual input becomes sound.

a. true
b. false

48. The entire U. S. supply of LSD for one year weighs about 11 pounds.

a. true
b. false

49. In addition to their psychedelic effects, all-around also depress the central nervous system.

a. true
b. false

50. The strength of LSD/“acid” available on the streets today is stronger than the LSD/“acid” that was widely available on the streets in the 1960s and 1970s.

a. true
b. false

51. Tolerance to LSD develops quickly, within days of daily use.

a. true
b. false

52. Marijuana is not addictive and does not induce compulsive use.

a. true
b. false

53. Psilocybin mushrooms cause less disassociation, panic, and psychotic reactions compared with LSD.

a. true
b. false

54. People who take LSD may experience flashbacks (re-experiencing symptoms of a trip) that are similar to post-traumatic stress disorder.

a. true
b. false

55.  A “fry” is a marijuana joint dipped in formaldehyde or embalming fluid, dried, and then smoked.

a. true
b. false

56. Hashish is made from… pressed psilocybin mushrooms

a. cannabis resin
b. synthetic chemical
c. compounds
d. tobacco

57. Marijuana has been illegal in the United States since…

a. 1776
b. 1850
c. 1937
d. 1492

58. As of 2011 an ounce of marijuana in the United States costs…

a. $100 to $150
b. $200 to $400
c. $500 to $600
d. $800 to $1,000

59. Marijuana in the urine of a regular user is detectable for…

a. 1 to 2 days
b. 7 to 14 days
c. 3 to 6 weeks
d. 3 to 6 months

60. The hallucinating effects of Salvia Divinorum last for…

a. 30 minutes
b. 1 to 2 hours
c. 6 to 8 hours
d. 12 to 24 hours

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