Motivation of Nurses in Healthcare

Nurses and the healthcare industry are having to deal with stressed and De-motivated employees, and never before has levels of Job satisfaction, stress and burnout been so high among nurses In the healthcare industry (Graham, 2006) . The aim of this Annotated Bibliography is to examine the motivation of nurses in healthcare, and specifically to find and study the different motivational theories which Improve levels of motivation among nurses.
As stated by (Wham and Ogle, 2007) the question of how to improve the level of motivation in the healthcare industry is perceived to be at the heart of the contemporary health care management debate. The study builds to show that motivation Is multidimensional and complex needing clearer definitions, If searchers and practitioners are wanting to influence behaviors to motivate others. Similarly, (Hugh, 1995) had the same conclusion that motivating staff to Improve Involves many Interlinking factors. Hugh, 1995) goes on to show that through training and continuing education a team’s confidence and capability are enhanced creating an environment which is essential to maintaining momentum of continuous Increases In staff motivation and enthusiasm for improvement. Likewise, (Lee, 2000) suggests that motivation Is gained by empowering nurses to become role models, to mentor and motivate others. Which in turn enhances employees’ motivation and professional development. The two articles (Wick.
DOSS and Northman, 2009) and (Young. Albert, Apaches and Meyer, 2007) are similar in there approach by both identifying incentives to motivate employees. Both articles indicate a breakdown exists between nurse management and nurse practitioners with management not actively listening to nurse who express job stress and dissatisfaction. Both articles suggest flexible work schedules to improve levels of job satisfaction and individualized work incentives. Reference Externally, V. , and Satellite, E. 007) Improving motivation among health care workers in private health care organizations- a perspective of nursing 1 OF 7 personnel, Baltic Journal AT Management, 2(2), 213-224 Alma/ Purpose 10 explore ten experiences of nursing personnel, in terms of their motivation and satisfaction. To identify areas for sustainable improvement to the health care services they provide. Article Type Research Article( quantitative) and brief literature review Method Sample 237 registered nurse practitioners and 30 nurse executive with a 97% returning quota of questionnaires.

Data Collection 2 week response time to return survey. 9 close ended questions divided into 11 evaluation parts. Data Analysis: in order to identify barriers to motivation 99 questions were divided into 11 parts based on: Social-psychological competencies Clinical expertise competencies Educational competencies Managerial administration competencies Activity environment Communication and collaboration Responsibility Results and encouragement Autonomy Self realization Activity purposefulness.
Each question had two elements or responses to them either reflecting the external or internal motivators of each situation. A score was arranged between the responses Findings Findings were presented individually in 11 parts. Interestingly nurse practitioners and executives both believe personnel empowerment and motivation comes from continuing development and evaluation of personnel problems. Both didn’t foresee that the development of teamwork competencies and structuring of activity of scope of practice as affective ways of motivation.
Conclusions The article concluded that with an increase demand for higher productivity, a changing health care systems and managed health care activity restrictions staff motivation is affected, with higher Job dissatisfaction and increased burnout rates. The research concluded that social factors influenced motivators: Motivation decreases when nurses aren’t empowered and not autonomous in activity. Motivation increases when nurses collaborate with physicians by parity. Results showed no difference between nurse practitioners and executives.
Strengths Clearly written and articulated The authors is neutral in undertaking research and the viewpoints between nurse practitioners Ana nurse executives. I en autonomous plants toner areas AT research needed. The validity of the research paper can’t be questioned and is therefore a useful reference in future studies. Weaknesses The quality of nursing cannot be assessed in terms of performance referenced criteria, but only in terms of personal qualities displayed in that performance. The characteristics of the provided sample limited the results. Reference Hugh, K. 1995) Motivating staff through teamwork: process review and data display. Health management Journal. 21(4), 32-35. Aim/purpose identify interlinking factors to motivate staff, in terms of total quality management and team work in a healthcare setting. Article type Critique Approach Examines claims there are four interconnecting intervention factors which are essential to motivating staff are: Understanding the psychology of excellence in teams Establishing cross-functional quality improvement teams Understanding and reviewing processes of care and service Using data display to motivate.
The article also uses psychology to understand total quality management and seeks to show how through teamwork staff become empowered in numbers and motivated. The author attempts to involve six issues which attempts to be a key determinate of staff motivation levels: Awareness of the employee trail Awareness of psychological issues Managing the existing culture of staff Increasing quality improvement attitudes in staff Integration of human resource management into operational teamwork Keeping jargon too minimum. Conclusion Describes four major factors which have practical implications, to motivate staff.
The author points out that training and continuing education enhances team’s confidence and capability, and that these factors are essential to maintain momentum and increase staff motivation and enthusiasm for improvement. Strengths The strength of the paper is it is descriptive in nature, and provides the deader with numerous way to improve motivation of employees. Weaknesses The weakness of the paper is it use limited sources back up it claims. The author also appears to be bias in his approach drawing on his own experiences or opinions rather then using evidence based practice.
Reference Wick, K. , Dols, J. , and Northman, S. (2000)What nurses want: the nurse incentives project. Nursing economics Journal. 27(3), 169-201. Aim/purpose To explore the relationship between specific factors, which can be managed or changed to improve motivation and Job satisfaction. The authors aims to show that nurse Job distraction, physician interactions, policies or autonomy are all related to staff motivation. Article type Research Method An anonymous survey involving 22 hospital systems and 5,176 Runs was circulated. Only 1 ,559 of the anonymous surveys were analyses.
This study was designed to allow predictive modeling of a set of independent variables, by including incentives and disincentives, in relation to what causes nurses to be dissatisfied and unmotivated in their Jobs. An online survey was also conducted over a 3 month period using the hospitals intranet, staff were made aware of the online survey through use of flyers. The data collected from both surveys, were analyses using the perceived stress scale. This scale isn’t specifically for nurses and therefore isn’t clinical oriented. The scale is a simple 10 item scale, involves respondents to respond from a range of “never” to “very often. The ASS score ranged from 10 to 50. The data used was then compared the mean age of nurses involved and the ethnicity. Findings The article shows that the mean age of nurses involved in the survey is 42. 24 years, with 88. 5% of respondents being female. The ethic breakdown was 5. 3% African American, 6. % Asian, 70. 3% Caucasian, 16. 4% Hipic, and 1. 3% listed other or no response. Conclusion The results were compared with the levels of staff dissatisfaction and stress showing a direct correlation between increased stress results in De-motivated staff and higher levels of Job dissatisfaction.
The levels of dissatisfaction and De-motivation was also comparatively different between the generations, as well as the incentives which staff through the survey identified as means of improving motivation levels. The article recommends that to improve levels of motivation management needs to revive flexible benefits to help create a cohesive work environment. By regarding the role of incentives in designing an environment where benefits and perks will be seen as incentives to perform tasks promptly and thrive in the current nursing workplace.
Strengths The strength of this paper is it draws information from a variety of sources increasing the reliability of the document. The data collected is presented statistically and clearly. By using a variety of methods it increases the validity of the paper. Weaknesses A low response rate of 30% could serve as a attention source of bias as some groups or hospitals maybe under-represented. Rather then present ways to improve motivation and levels of dissatisfaction, the article shows that levels of dissatisfaction and motivation are low. With high levels of staff indicating that they are unmotivated and stressed in there Jobs.
Reference Lee, L. (2000) Motivation, mentoring and empowerment. The nursing management Journal. 1 (12) 25-27. Aim/purpose To define motivation, and to show that through empowerment and mentoring staff become more motivated to perform. Article type Meta-analysis of literature Approach The author uses the evidence presented by 7 well known nursing journals to define motivation as “that which impels or compels movement or action. ” I en paper contributed to ten area Dye suggesting Tour stages to Deescalate motivation, mentoring and empowerment: Input: motivate employees.
Process: mentoring to channel motivation to reach goals. Output: completed goals creates empowerment. Feedback: empowered nurse has greater self-esteem and competence. The article is based on nursing practice to improve quality of care and enhance understanding of the nurse leaders role in motivation, mentoring and empowerment. The article suggests taking a test to identify how one can implement motivation, mentoring and empowerment to encourage higher achievement, to identify characteristics of a successful mentor/protog relationship, and differentiate the stages of motivation, mentoring and empowerment.
Conclusion The article shows how mentoring and empowerment of nurses gives nurses freedom to be creativity and to turn ideas into action. The article shows how current literature suggests that a creative climate in which employees can perform, become motivated in their work and are able to motivate themselves and others. The author states that motivation, mentoring and empowerment aren’t separate identities. The author shows how motivation and empowerment fuel mentoring. And that through mentoring protogs become empowered, which enhances professional development and motivation.
Strengths The article in itself is motivation, encouraging researchers to become empowered and motivated and to think about think about other means to motivate others that haven’t been thought of before to contribute to this area of knowledge and research. Weaknesses The paper is limited and weakened by not using enough information from scholarly peered reviewed resources. , making very generalized statements. Reference Young, C. , Albert, N. , Apaches, S. , and Meyer, K. (2007) The ‘parent shift’ program: incentives for nurses, rewards for nursing teams.
Nursing Economics Journal. 25(6) 339-344. Aim/purpose To introduce the ‘parent shift’ program as innovative model of attracting, retaining and motivating nurses to return into the workforce. The study aims to show how the parent shift nurse program decreases stress, improves time efficiency of full time staff and also improves motivation of involved staff and those that work with them. Article type Research (quantitative) Method The prospective, descriptive, comparative survey research study was conducted in a 1000+ bed hospital.
The survey was anonymous and conducted over a 12 month period, and conducted on day one of commencement and 4 months after. This survey was also conducted in reference to the nursing management, who were given a salary survey wanly was contacted 4 months rater ten Implementation. I n data was summarized by mean and standard deviation. Nursing motivators were ranked on percentage and nursing management and URN roles responses were compared. Conclusion A brief literature review was conducted at the start of the article which found that in one study that those involved in the parent shift program that 98. % of respondents found the program extremely useful. And also found that in terms of nursing management it decreased overtime and burnout, and collaboration and team work was also enhanced among nurses. The literature review also stated that nurses motivation and retained in the workforce improved 41. 5% when the current employer accommodated their scheduling needs. In all areas it was found that nurse involved were less stressed, team work improved and URN cohesiveness improved. It was found that a supportive work environment, was created due to flexible working environment.
Strengths The study suggests other areas to be improved upon if research is undertaken in the same field again. (program affects on teamwork, interruptions, models of care implementation, ability to meet non-patient care responsibilities and the dynamics of specific roles and responsibilities could strengthen the program). Weaknesses Large sampling size resulted in a generalization of results. Only operated for a short time. Other staff members working along side those involved in the program weren’t revered.
And was identified as an important factor in continued program participation. The literature review which was conducted prior research was short and didn’t provide enough information. Conclusion This annotated bibliography highlighted many different opinions and studies related to motivating employees. The research into this topic supports the belief that employee motivation is related to empowerment, mentoring, continued education and autonomy within the workplace. Of the five articles in this annotated bibliography all come to the similar conclusion and finding .
They analyses and viewed a sufficient number of studies and theories in the area of motivating staff in the healthcare environment. It can be concluded that motivation increases when nurses collaborate with physicians, the nursing profession is respected and recognized as autonomous and valued by themselves and other healthcare professionals. After analysis of the sources of motivation among nurses as shown through the respective annotations, it is evident that management needs to listen to employees and recognize when motivation is an issue in their unit and the incentives needed to re-motivate staff.

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