The practice of management and the classical enunciation of management principles can be traced to the 19th century. The development of management as an academic discipline based on a body of knowledge that can be taught is a recent development and is generally attributed to the work of Peter F. Trucker in the latter half of the 20th century. That body of knowledge is taught in graduate schools of business and in programs that prepare managers of public health departments, programs, and health services organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities.
This chapter provides a basic introduction to management theory and problem solving, and concludes with a brief discussion of negotiation and alternative dispute resolution. Managers are persons who are formally appointed to positions of authority In organizations. They enable others to do their work and are accountable too higher authority for work results. Primarily, the differences between levels of managers are the degree of authority and the scope of their accountability for work results. Line managers manage people and things; staff managers, such as the human resources department and the fiscal office, support the work of line managers.
Management Functions and Decision Making The five management functions of planning, organizing, controlling, directing, and staffing are brought to Fife and connected by decision making, which is itself a subset of the essential process for managers that is known as problem solving. Little that managers at all levels in an organization do falls outside the purview of the five management functions. Management theorists and practitioners may choose one or two of the five functions as most Important, but this Is not borne out normatively. When one considers the full range of what managers do (or should do) as they reform their work. Incineration on a few to the exclusion or diminution of the others will invariably cause problems for the organization. Decision making Is an inherent activity of managers, and they make decisions within and among the five management functions. Problem analysis. Performance of the management functions and the decision making of problem solving should be evaluated using explicit and measurable criteria. In addition to engaging in the five management functions, managers must utilize specific skills, play various roles, and evidence a number of competencies.
Managing and Leading Some theorists and academicians distinguish managers and leaders, based on the view that managing is more creating and maintaining status quo (transactional) whereas leading is more visionary and dynamic (transformational). That distinction may be more important pedagogically than in practical application, however, especially at the organization’s operating level. Senior managers must ensure effective current organizational activities and that an organization’s future is envisioned. Using this vision, the organization can be transformed as needed.
As they work to achieve organizational objectives, managers use technical, ancestral, and interpersonal skills. These skills are applied in various proportions, depending on the manager’s task and level in the organizational hierarchy. Usually, senior managers make greater use of conceptual skills, whereas middle- and entry level managers use a more even mix of the three. The research of Henry Integer found that managers have different roles, the general categories of which include interpersonal, informational, and decisional. Each may be segmented.
For example, the interpersonal role includes figurehead and influencer, informational includes monitor and spokesperson, and the decisional role includes entrepreneur and negotiator. Successful managers integrate these various roles and are likely to engage in them without making a clear distinction. Another way to understand managers’ work is to identify their competencies, some of which are found in the categorization discussed earlier. Conceptual, technical managerial/clinical, interpersonal/collaborative, political, commercial, and governance competencies are used in different proportions by managers at various levels of the organization.
I will say on the front end that, in my opinion, leadership is a dynamic and complex process, and that much of what is written these days tends to over-simplify this recess. My goal here is to provide an overview that keeps things simple, without crossing into over-simplification, and for the most part refraining from any critiquing This theory postulates that people are either born or not born with the qualities that predispose them to success in leadership roles. That is, that certain inherited qualities, such as personality and cognitive ability, are what underlie effective leadership.
There have been hundreds of studies to determine the most important leadership traits, and while there is always going to be some disagreement, intelligence, sociability, and drive (aka determination) are consistently cited as key qualities. Skills Theory This theory states that learned knowledge and acquired skills/abilities are significant factors in the practice of effective leadership. Skills theory by no means disavows the connection between inherited traits and the capacity to be an effective leader – it simply argues that learned skills, a developed style, and acquired knowledge, are the real keys to leadership performance.
It is of course the belief that skills theory is true that warrants all the effort and resources devoted to leadership training and placement Situational Theory This theory suggests that different situations require different styles of leadership. That is, to be effective in leadership requires the ability to adapt or adjust one’s style to the circumstances of the situation. The primary factors that determine how to adapt are an assessment of the competence and commitment of a leader’s followers.
The assessment of these factors determines if a leader should use a more directive or supportive style. Contingency Theory This theory states that a leader’s effectiveness is contingent on how well the leader’s Tyler matches a specific setting or situation. And how, you may ask, is this different from situational theory? In situational the focus is on adapting to the situation, whereas contingency states that effective leadership depends on the degree of fit between a leader’s qualities and style and that of a specific situation or context.
Path-Goal Theory This theory is about how leaders motivate followers to accomplish identified objectives. It postulates that effective leaders have the ability to improve the motivation of followers by clarifying the paths and removing obstacles to high performance and desired objectives. The underlying beliefs of path-goal theory (grounded in expectancy theory) are that people will be more focused and motivated if they believe they are capable of high performance, believe their effort will result in desired outcomes, and believe their work is worthwhile.
Transformational Theory This theory states that leadership is the process by which a person engages with others and is able to create a connection that results in increased motivation and leadership that espouses that leaders with certain qualities, such as confidence, extroversion, and clearly stated values, are best able to motivate followers. The key in transformational leadership is for the leader to be attentive to the needs and motives of followers in an attempt to help them reach their maximum potential.
In addition, transformational leadership typically describes how leaders can initiate, develop, and implement important changes in an organization. This theory is often discussed in contrast with transactional leadership. Transactional Theory This is a theory that focuses on the exchanges that take place between leaders and followers. It is based in the notion that a leader’s Job is to create structures that aka it abundantly clear what is expected of his/her followers and also the consequences (I. E. Rewards and punishments) for meeting or not meeting these expectations. This theory is often likened to the concept and practice of management and continues to be an extremely common component of many leadership models and organizational structures. Servant Leadership Theory This conceptualization of leadership reflects a philosophy that leaders should be servants first. It suggests that leaders must place the needs of followers, customers, and the community ahead of their own interests in order to be effective.
The idea of servant leadership has a significant amount of popularity within leadership circles – but it is difficult to describe it as a theory inasmuch as a set of beliefs and values that leaders are encouraged to embrace. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHALLENGES OF LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICE The Leadership Assessment Center can be used to measure many of the leadership competencies that serve as the foundation for Mom’s Executive Core Qualifications. Exercises can be mixed and matched with relative ease to meet agency-specific requirements.
During the assessments, the candidate assumes the role of a leader n a fictitious government agency. The assessment is designed to approximate the “look” and “feel” of a typical day in the life of a Federal Government supervisor, manager, or executive. Four types of exercises are currently available: * Individual Exercise. The individual exercise is designed to assess problem solving, decision making, flexibility, interpersonal skills, oral communication, and other related competencies.
The candidate must quickly and efficiently sort through a variety of materials and determine the best course of action to complete the assigned task. * Group Exercise. The group interaction is designed to assess interpersonal skills, conflict management, team building, oral communication, and other related competencies. Several candidates work as a group to resolve a problem within a specified period of time. * Strategic Analysis Exercise. The strategic analysis exercise is designed to assess strategic thinking, vision, and other related competencies.
The candidate must evaluate available information and determine the best course of action in response to a strategic planning situation facing the agency. High visibility, rapid response activities prevalent in a manager’s workday. These exercises measure decisiveness, flexibility, and other related competencies. Participants receive feedback on leadership competencies for all five PM Aces based on performance in the assessment exercises. The Leadership Assessment Center is an ideal tool for use in leader selection and selection into Candidate Development Programs or other agency leadership development programs.
MANAGEMENT PRACTICES The formal organizational structure that managers design and implement provides important information about the planned interrelationships among its several elements. Within the formal structure, however, is the informal “organization,” which consists of the numerous interpersonal relationships that develop outside the formal relationships established in the formal organization and that reflect the wishes and preferences of the people who work in the organization.
The informal organization is characterized by dynamic behavior and activity patterns that occur within the formal organizational structure of people working together. These interactions and relationships arise spontaneously, but they are usually stable over time. Informal roofs give their members relief from monotony and boredom, offer interaction with persons having similar values, and allow achievement of a level of status that may be absent in formal relationships. Leaders emerge within informal groups.
As is true with leaders of formal groups, leaders of informal group initiate action, resolve differences of opinion and conflicts, and communicate values to nonmembers. Informal groups are most helpful to the formal organization when they blend with it. Other positive aspects include providing a level of flexibility while still meeting organization goals, providing social values and stability to the organization, allowing more general supervision, and facilitating communication. Effective managers understand and use informal groups to benefit the organization.
Combined, the formal and informal organizations are the actual organization. Managers ignore informal groups and informal leaders at their peril. ANALYSIS OF THE KEY MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES AND HOW THEY INFLUENCE ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS The value system of an organization can also be called an organizational philosophy – the ethical context in which goods and services are rendered. Ethics audits are an important tool managers can use to “biopsy’ the organization’s value system. These audits are comprised of staff surveys; observations of staff/patient interaction; and reviews of staff recruitment, selection and training.
Audits provide an understanding of the culture so that culture’s values can be moved in the desired direction. Managers are Judged by their organizations’ performance. The way managers set standards, coordinate and integrate workups, make decisions, and design the organizations affect performance. In addition, it is patently clear from research and Reuters the organization’s goals. These values are expressed in explicit and implicit ways by managers and are expected to be present in the work of all members of the staff. Managers must model appropriate behavior.
It is logical to conclude that an organization in which all staff understand the desired values and incorporate them into their work lives will achieve its goals more effectively. EVALUATION OF THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT IN EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION As a manager in a company, you must find ways to motivate your employees in order to encourage productivity and ensure Job satisfaction. A manager cannot force an employee to be successful at his Job, but he can motivate him with fair treatment, proper incentives and adequate compensation. It is the role of management to lead by example and motivate employees to do their best.
Combine Work Goals with Employee Goals As a manager, you can motivate your employees by making sure your work goals align with their work goals. This requires strategic planning and communication because you must let your employees know exactly what you expect from them. If they do not have standards and goals to meet, you will feel frustrated by their lack of efficiency ND they will feel frustrated by their failed efforts to please you. Misunderstanding of goals leads to disappointment and failure–the opposite of the motivating forces you are striving to create.
Understand What Motivates Each Employee Managers must understand exactly what motivates each employee in their company. Some are motivated by money and benefits; some are motivated by praise; and others are motivated by work-life balance. As a manager, you must assess each employee’s work responsibilities and underlying motivations. An employee analysis requires you to meet with each employee individually to discuss their work-related series. Most employees appreciate a manager’s sincere interest in their lives.
Lead by Example One of the best things you can do as a manager to motivate your employees is to lead by example. If you are lazy, prone to procrastination or allow your temper to flare, you will likely get the same behavior from your employees. If you want to motivate your employees to pursue excellence in their Job responsibilities, behave how you would like them to behave. Speak kindly, show respect and give praise where it is due. Create a Fair System Fairness is an important motivating factor in the workplace. You must create a fair yester of incentives, rewards and benefits that encourages your employees to work hard.
As an employer, you can never show favoritism. Incorporate fair compensation programs, employee performance evaluations and consistent policies into your ANALYSIS OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AS ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES What’s an Organizational Performance System? Organizational learning and knowledge management might be interpreted more as movements than organization performance strategies because there are wide interpretations of the concepts, not all of which include focusing on achieving top- bevel organizational results.
However, if these two concepts are instilled across the organization and focus on organizational results, they contribute strongly to organizational performance. On the other hand, the Balanced Scorecard, which is deliberately designed to be comprehensive and focused on organizational results, will not improve performance if not implemented from a strong design. For example, a large organization with highly standardized processes (such as a manufacturing company with assembly lines) can carry out numerous and ongoing measurements in a straightforward fashion.
It also has extensive resources to induct the measurements and analyze results. SISSIES certification is a strong enhancement to a company’s image. Therefore, the organization might pursue SISSIES certification, including through use of continuous improvements in an overall Total Quality Management approach. The organization may establish numerous benchmarks for comparison to other organizations in the industry to get perspective on how well the organization is doing, what results to pursue, etc.
On the other hand, a risk management company specializing in consultation to protect against terrorism, has a bigger challenge to identify and track performance exults. Management might believe, for example, that the organization’s means for delivery of services are well out-of-date and that the organization is no longer resourced to advise organizations about increasing threats from terrorism that exist today. Therefore, the risk management company may choose to use business process reengineering to completely redesign their organization from the ground up.
Prominent Organizational Performance Improvement Models (Systems). The following descriptions are general and brief. Follow the link to get more information about each of the approaches. There certainly are other approaches than those listed below for a planned, comprehensive approach to increasing organizational performance. It may very well be that the vast majority of approaches used in organizations are highly customized to the nature of the organizations, and therefore not publicized or formalized in management literature.
Balanced Scorecard: Focuses on four indicators, including customer perspective, internal-business processes, learning and growth and financial, to monitor progress toward organization’s strategic goals Benchmarking: Using standard measurements n a service or industry for comparison to other organizations in order to gain standard benchmarks for universities, hospitals, etc. In and of itself, this is not an overall comprehensive process assured to improve performance; rather the results from benchmark comparisons can be used in more overall processes. Benchmarking is often perceived as a quality initiative.
Business Process Reengineering: Aims to increase performance by radically re- designing the organization’s structures and processes, including by starting over from the ground up. Continuous Improvement: Focuses on improving customer distractions through continuous and incremental improvements to processes, including by removing unnecessary activities and variations. Continuous improvement is often perceived as a quality initiative. Cultural Change: Cultural change is a form of organizational transformation, that is, radical and fundamental form of change. Cultural change involves changing the basic values, norms, beliefs, etc. Among members of the organization. SISSIES: Is an internationally recognized standard of quality, and includes guidelines to accomplish the SISSIES standard. Organizations can be optionally audited to earn SISSIES certification. Another major quality standard is the Baldric Award. SISSIES is a quality initiative. Knowledge Management: Focuses on collection and management of critical knowledge in an organization to increase its capacity for achieving results. Knowledge management often includes extensive use of computer technology. In and of itself, this is not an overall comprehensive process assured to improve performance.
Its effectiveness toward reaching overall results for the organization depends on how well the enhanced, critical knowledge is applied in the organization. Learning Organization: Focuses on enhancing organizations systems (including people) to increase an organization’s capacity for performance. Includes extensive use of principles of systems theory. In and of itself, this is not an overall comprehensive process assured to improve performance. Its effectiveness toward reaching overall results for the organization depends on how well the enhanced ability to learn is applied in the organization.
Management by Objectives (MOB): Aims to align goals and subordinate objectives throughout the organization. Ideally, employees get strong input to identifying their objectives, time lines for completion, etc. Includes ongoing tracking and feedback in process to reach objectives. Mob’s are often perceived as a form of planning. Outcome-Based Evaluation (particularly for nonprofits): Outcomes-based evaluation is increasingly used, particularly by nonprofit organizations, to assess the impact of their services and products on their target communities.
The process includes identifying preferred outcomes to accomplish with a certain target market, associate indicators as measures for each of those outcomes and then carry out the measures Program Evaluation: Program evaluation is used for a wide variety of applications, e. G. , to increase efficiencies of program processes and thereby cut costs, to assess if program goals were reached or not, to quality programs for accreditation, etc. Strategic Planning: Organization-wide process to identify strategic direction, including vision, mission, values and overall goals.
Direction is pursued by implementing associated action plans, including multi-level goals, objectives, time lines and responsibilities. Strategic planning is, of course, a form of planning. Total Quality Management (TTS): Set of management practices throughout the organization to ensure the organization consistently meets or exceeds customer requirements. Strong focus on process measurement and controls as means of continuous improvement. TTS is a quality initiative.
ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEAMS Traditionally, a team goes through five stages of development. Each stage of team development presents its own special challenges to a group of people striving to work together successfully by forming a cohesive team. The team and the organization can take specific actions at each stage of team development to support he team’s success in accomplishing the team mission. At each stage, the behavior of the leader must be adapted to the changing and developing needs of the group.
The model used was first developed by Dry. Bruce TCPMAN who published his four stages of team development: the Forming, Storming, Morning, and Performing model, in 1965. Dry. TCPMAN seems to have added a fifth stage, Adjourning, during the sass. Stages of Team Development Model Forming: a group of people come together to accomplish a shared purpose. Storming: Disagreement about mission, vision, and approaches combined with the fact that Emma members are getting to know each other can cause strained relationships and conflict.
Morning: The team has consciously or unconsciously formed working relationships that are enabling progress on the team’s objectives. Performing: Relationships, team processes, and the team’s effectiveness in working on its objectives are syncing to bring about a successfully functioning team. Transforming: The team is performing so well that members believe it is the most successful team they have experienced; or Ending: The team has completed its mission or purpose and it is time for team members to pursue other goals or projects.
Not every team moves through these stages in order and various activities such as adding a new team member can send the team back to earlier stages. The length of time necessary for progressing through these stages depends on the experience of the members, the support the team receives and the knowledge and skill of the team members. These are the twelve specific factors that must be present for a team to succeed. Team Leadership A lack of leadership is often seen as a roadblock to a team’s performance.
As Stewart and Mans (1995, p. 748) writes, “More specifically, work team management or prevision is often identified as a primary reason why self-management teams fail to properly develop and yield improvements in productivity, quality, and quality of life for for American workers. ” Rather than focusing on ineffective teams, Larson and Alfalfa (1989) looked in the opposite direction by interviewing excellent teams to gain insights as to what enables them to function to a high degree.
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