Leadership is the process of influencing the behavior of others to work willingly and enthusiastically for achieving predetermined goals. Leadership indicates the ability of an individual to maintain good interpersonal relations with followers and motivate them to contribute for achieving organisational objectives. According to Trait theory of leadership to become an effective and successful leader an individual must possess some traits relevant to leadership. These traits may be innate or acquired. The innate traits are those which are possessed by the individuals since their birth. The major innate qualities that an individual must possess to be a successful leader are as follows:
1) Physical features: Physical features like height, weight, health, appearance determine the physical personality of an individual. It is believed that good physical features attract people. Health and endurance help a leader to work hard which inspires others to work with same tempo. These physical features of an individual are determined by heredity factors. 2) Intelligence: For leadership, higher level of intelligence is required. Intelligence is generally expressed in terms of mental ability. Intelligence to a very great extent is a natural quality in the individuals because it is directly related with brain. These qualities are natural and often known as God gifted. These qualities cannot be acquired by the individuals. On the basis of such qualities it is said that ‘leaders are born and not made’.
Physical and behavioral and cognitive factors like appearance, intelligence were thought to be key determinants of leading ability. Thus this school of thought suggests that leadership traits are innate in a person and it is by nature someone is pre-disposed to leadership in comparison with another person. Another school of thought lays emphasis on the behavioral aspect of leadership. It says that leadership depends on the type of responses various people provide while encountering situation. These responses and behaviors lead to the formation of leadership skills. Since the behavioral skills are acquired after the birth of a child, thus its more a social parameter rather than a biological parameter. Thus according to this school of thought leadership skills can be acquired and nurtured in a individual. Most of the social scientist agree that determinants of leadership lie in between these school of thoughts. Though some of the traits may be innate, but the
behavioral skills acquired during once life finally decides the leadership ability of a person. Thus, it would be myopic to compartmentalize leadership in “birth vs made”, in actual its combination of the two
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