Hurricanes are severe tropical storms that form in the eastern Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean and southern Atlantic Ocean. In this past century, dozens of hurricanes have hit the United States coast that has cost large amounts of wealth as well as great number of lives. At present, the nation is entering into a new forceful episode of hurricanes as more frequent and more intense storms are expected to impact the area over the upcoming decades.
Although nowadays, scientists are able to forecast hurricanes; nevertheless, residents in coastal communities and other nations should plan each of their respective responsibilities if an advised to evacuate is unexpectedly given. Overview of One of the Most Destructive Hurricanes in America On August 28, 2005, in the southern coast of the United States, Hurricane Katrina hit the area surreptitiously and with catastrophic consequence.
Hurricane Katrina was one of the most powerful hurricanes ever recorded in the country’s history. It was reported that over $81 billion dollars in damages occurred, and about 1,800 people lost their lives. The aforesaid hurricane recorded the largest human displacement ever since the 1930s Dust Bowl migration, as over 800,000 citizens from the more than 1. 5 million directly affected individuals were forced to live away from their homes (U. S. Department of Homeland Security, 2008).
Accordingly, as victims work continually to recover the livelihood and health they once had, national and international endeavours to aid them are as well continues. Risk Factors for Humanitarian Dimensions The potential risk factors of humanitarian and relief assistance on development processes, for both affected nation and people, are widely recognized. Hurricane occurrences normally raise basic questions concerning how the United States can, and should, manage the expected problems of social responsibility and economic risk brought by this type of calamity.
Inevitably, the country will even confront more problems as ensuing humanitarian activities can be very risky, as humanitarian volunteers and victims are often unprepared of the possible dangers involved, along with the appropriate safety precautions. Alarmingly, the work-related risks that could be encountered following hurricane disasters consist of exposures to: fire, hazardous materials, motor vehicles, heat stress, musculoskeletal hazards, carbon monoxide, confined spaces and falling debris (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008).
Depending on the hurricane’s intensity, the risk can be even more severe, and the nation must be prepared to response from it. In addition, there are also risks that are brought about by the disputes of volunteers, humanitarian organizations and victims, as opposing institutional expectations, unequal involvement by workforce, and competition of assistance and technical knowledge among them may sometimes be expected. This is due to the fact that field volunteers of every organization had varying, but normally minimal, levels of appreciating the mutual humanitarian activities.
On account of this fact, the volunteers at times becomes incapable to provide the immediate guidance and leadership to the victims; in organizing camps and evacuations; in gathering information; and in supporting and identifying the weakest individuals. As a result, the ineffective humanitarian assistance will only generate greater risk among the victims, aggravating the earlier massive natural disaster. Value of Multi-nation Economic Cooperation Other nations are an essential partner with the United States government in responding to and recovering from natural calamities such as hurricanes.
Such partnerships increasingly bring about significant recovery operations of the affected government. Partnerships between the environmental conservative agencies, and the humanitarian aid community in addition to the economic cooperation of several nations can reduce negative impacts of reconstruction and recovery programs, help evaluate relationship of the affected environment with the disaster recovery operations, and promote development endeavours that minimize vulnerability and risk of communities to upcoming hurricanes (Brenda, 2008, p.
1). Given the influence and importance of the multi-nation economic cooperation all over the world, together they are exceptionally positioned to carry out something that will minimize risk factors as well as minimize the affected nations and people’s vulnerability. If nations produce effective economic strategic response, it is certain that reconstruction endeavours will have least negative environmental impact as well as encourage effective humanitarian assistance throughout the rebuilding process.
Moreover, multi-nation economic cooperation enhances the effectiveness and impact of related approaches such as joint assessments, short reports, training, allocation of staff, and employment of mutually developed tools. Accordingly, an opportunity to develop a theoretical outline for future humanitarian disaster risk reduction programs that actively deal with risk factors is learned through this cooperation. Hurricane can have enormous economic impacts on the affected country, especially if the affected is an undeveloped country, depriving the nation of indispensable resources to escape the effects of the disaster.
Multi-nation economic cooperation in strategic response through humanitarian aid is exceptionally valuable as it generally: (1) Supports the affected country by means of assisting them how to effectively mitigate the effects of disaster through the development appropriate strategies and policies. (2) Supports the affected country in effectively reducing disaster risk, by means of targeted action on disaster preparedness, mitigation and prevention.
(3) Incorporates disaster risk reduction concerns more effectively into the affected country’s improvement and humanitarian aid programming and policies, and disaster response. Through systematic endeavours to manage and analyse the consequences of hurricanes, including avoidance of risks, reducing economic and social vulnerability to risks, and improved awareness of the disaster’s ensuing adverse effect, the multi-nation cooperative strategic response generally reduces the risk factors of humanitarian assistance along with other unfavourable effects of hurricanes.
In addition, the strategic response enhances the levels of awareness of people within the disaster prone areas in the United States, as it focuses not only on post-event crisis management, but as well on the continuing enhancement of community response capability. With nations’ economic cooperation, awareness about the management of risk and utilization of communication and information technology will be greatly supported and strengthened. Conclusion
The world faces a momentous and vital challenge in finding ways to successfully reduce the impact of hurricanes on the environment, the economy, and society. Humanitarian risks can be avoided, and there are ways to reduce these risks as well as to limit impacts. In hurricane-affected areas, the effective multi-nation economic cooperation strategies for humanitarian assistance embodies a significant advantage to affected nations; if properly maintained and managed, it can provide a firm foundation for the victims to re-establish their lives.
Beyond doubt, multi-nation economic cooperation in strategic response through humanitarian aid is exceptionally valuable as it reduces the burden of hurricanes on the affected nations and people, as well as effectively contributes to the sustainable development of the victims. However, unless nations learn from previous lessons brought by hurricanes, they will repeat the disasters’ harsh problems, from issues of injustice in the affected communities to strategies and assurance for rebuilding communities.
Therefore, the main challenge now is how to continually convert the strategic response into progressing action at both national and international level. References Brenda, A. (2008, January 31). Rreducing Risk and Vulnerability-An Environmental and Humanitarian Reconstruction Partnership. Resilient Organizations. Retrieved April 6, 2009, http://www. resorgs. org. nz/irec2008/Papers/van%20Breda.
pdf Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008, September 4). Storm and Flood Cleanup. Retrieved April 6, 2009, from http://www. cdc. gov/niosh/topics/flood/ U. S. Department of Homeland Security. (2008, October 16). The First Year After Hurricane Katrina: What the Federal Government Did. Retrieved April 4, 2008, from http://www. dhs. gov/xfoia/archives/gc_1157649340100. shtm