The author-date system originated at Harvard University, and although they no longer produce a standard guide to referencing, a version of the author-date system is still commonly referred to as the Harvard style. Other author-date referencing styles include Chicago, APA, and MLA. The Harvard Style of referencing is widely accepted in scholarly circles. Each reference is indicated in the text by the author and date of the publication cited, sometimes with added information such as page numbers. The full details of these references are listed at the end of the text in a Reference list. There are many different styles or ways of using the Harvard or author-date system. This document is meant only as a guide. It is important that you check with your School as to what they require for referencing. You may be penalized for not conforming to your School’s requirements. Further details and examples may be found in the Style manual for authors, editors, and printers. Electronic resources are not adequately addressed in the
Style manual for authors, editors, and printers and so the principles of author-date citing have been applied in developing those examples. The information and examples are derived from the following source: Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th and, John Wiley & Sons, Australia. Choosing a reference style The style (i. e. order in which the details of a reference are cited) may vary depending on the requirements of your department, lecturer or supervisor. Some Schools produce their own guidelines for citing references. Check with your School whether they have a preferred Referencing Style. The Library also has a Style Manuals page that provides links to websites on various referencing styles. What is referencing? Referencing an information source used in an academic work means to employ a standardized method of acknowledging that source. The full details of the source must be given. All information used in your assignment, thesis, etc. , whether published or unpublished, must be referenced. Why reference? When writing a piece of academic work (ie. essay, thesis, etc. you are required to acknowledge the sources of information that you have used: Oto prove that your work has a substantial, factual basis Oto show the research you’ve done to reach your conclusions Oto allow your readers to identify and retrieve the references for their own use Information obtained from the Internet is covered by copyright law. For this reason, it is important to cite Internet references just as you would cite print references. Many style guide producers have extended the system used for print resources and applied this to electronic resources. The date of access is very useful as Internet resources change rapidly.
When to reference? (Plagiarism) You must reference all sources used in a particular work whether you are: O directly copying the words of another author (quoting), or Putting their ideas into your own words (paraphrasing). If you do not acknowledge these sources, then you are plagiarizing their work. Plagiarism is defined as the taking, using, and passing off as your own, the ideas or words of another. It is a very serious academic offense and may result in your work being failed automatically. University definition of plagiarism RMIT has an assessment charter, which elaborates key responsibilities common to all staff and students in relation to assessment and defines the University’s policy on plagiarism. Plagiarism is defined (RMIT 2003a) as stealing somebody’s intellectual property (IP) by presenting their work, thoughts, or ideas as though they are your own. It is cheating. It is a serious academic offense and can lead to expulsion from RMIT. Plagiarism can take many forms – written, graphic and visual forms, and includes the use of electronic data and material used in oral presentations. Plagiarism may even occur unintentionally, such as when the origin of the material used is not properly cited. What constitutes plagiarism? Under the charter, you may be accused of plagiarism if you do any of the following: a copy sentences or paragraphs word-for-word from any source, whether published or unpublished (including, but not limited to books, journals, reports, theses, websites, conference papers, course notes, etc.) without proper citation. closely paraphrasing sentences, paragraphs, ideas, or themes without proper citation. piece together text from one or more sources and add only linking sentences without proper citation.
Copy or submitting whole or parts of computer files without acknowledging their source. copy designs or works of art and submit them as your original work, copy a whole, or any part of another student’s work. Submit work as your own that someone else has done for you. Enabling Plagiarism is the act of assisting or allowing another person to plagiarise your own work. It is also a serious academic offense. Any use of another person’s work or ideas must be acknowledged. If you fail to do this, you may be charged with academic misconduct and face a penalty under RMIT Regulations. Penalties for plagiarism. Recording of failure for the assignment or course Cancellation of any or all results Suspension from the program Oexpulsion from the program Acknowledgement: The information in this section on Plagiarism has been supplied from the Written reports and essays: guidelines for referencing and presentation.
In-text references In the text of your essay or thesis you should identify your source by giving, in parentheses, the author’s name and year of publication of the work to which reference has been made. From the textual reference, the reader can turn to the alphabetical list of references for full publication details. Page numbers are essential if directly quoting from a work, use single quotation marks, and the relevant page numbers. If the work being referred to is long then page numbers may be useful to the reader. For example, Larsen noted ‘many of the facts, in this case, are incorrect’. OR ’Many of the facts, in this case, are incorrect’.
Style manual for authors, editors, and printers 2002, 1998.
Bauman, Z 1998.
Globalization and culture, Polity Press, Oxford. Tomlinson, J 1999, Globalization: the human consequences, Routledge, London.
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