Greek Mythology: The Muses

Greek Mythology The Muses Sister Goddesses, The Muses, were in charge of the world of Literature, Art, and Society. The Nine Daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne; they gave inspiration to artist, writers and other artistically gifted people. “The Nine Muses have been inspiring artists since the antiquity and there countless paintings, drawings, designs, poems and statues dedicated to them. All artists of the Renaissance acknowledged their importance in artistic creation, dedicating their works to the Muses. ”[1] The number of Muses varies over time.
At first only one Muse was spoken of but later poets mention three: Melete (Practice, Study), Mneme (Memory), and Aoede (Song). They were nymphs in Pieria, which is found in western Thrace, and their cult was brought to Mount Helicon in Boeotia by the Aloads. Eventually it became accepted that there were nine muses: Calliope, Clio, Erato, Euterpe, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, Terpsichore, Thalia, and Urania. The Muse Clio discovered history and guitar. History was named Clio in the ancient years, because it refers to “Kleos” the Greek word for the heroic acts.
Clio was always represented with a clarion in the right arm and a book in the left hand. Muse Euterpe discovered several musical instruments, courses and dialectic. She was always depicted holding a flute, while many instruments were always around her. Muse Thalia was the protector of comedy; she discovered comedy, geometry, architectural science and agriculture. She was also protector of Symposiums. She was always depicted holding a theatrical – comedy mask. Opposite from Thalia, Muse Melpomene was the protector of Tragedy; she invented tragedy, rhetoric speech and Melos.

She was depicted holding a tragedy mask and usually bearing a bat. Terpsichore was the protector of dance; she invented dances, the harp and education. She was called Terpsichore because she was enjoying and having fun with dancing ( “Terpo” in Greek refers to be amused). She was depicted wearing laurels on her head, holding a harp and dancing. Muse Erato was the protector of Love and Love Poetry – as well as wedding. Her name comes from the Greek word “Eros” that refers to the feeling of falling in love.
She was depicted holding a lyre and love arrows and bows. Muse Polymnia was the protector of the divine hymns and mimic art; she invented geometry and grammar. She was depicted looking up to the Sky, holding a lyre. Muse Ourania was the protector of the celestial objects and stars; she invented astronomy. She was always depicted bearing stars, a celestial sphere and a bow compass. Muse Calliope was the superior Muse. She was accompanying kings and princes in order to impose justice and serenity. She was the protector of heroic poems and rhetoric art.
According to the myth, Homer asks from Calliope to inspire him while writing Iliad and Odyssey, and, thus, Calliope is depicted holding laurels in one hand and the two Homeric poems in the other hand. The ancient writer Hesiod said of them, “They are all of one mind, their hearts are set upon song and their spirit is free from care. He is happy whom the Muses love. For though a man has sorrow and grief in his soul, yet when the servant of the Muses sings, at once he forgets his dark thoughts and remembers not his troubles.
Such is the holy gift of the Muses to men. “[2] The Myth “[The Muses] are all of one mind, their hearts are set upon song and their spirit is free from care. He is happy whom the Muses love. For though a man has sorrow and grief in his soul, yet when the servant of the Muses sings, at once he forgets his dark thoughts and remembers not his troubles. Such is the holy gift of the Muses to men. ” ~Hesiod~[3] Ancient Greek legend tells us that Pegasus often wandered, stopping to rest on Mt. Olympus.
One day, when his hoofs touched the ground on Mount Helicon, four sacred springs of water formed and from these springs the Muses (goddesses of inspiration) were born. The Muses were the nine beautiful chosen goddesses that reigned over the liberal arts and sciences, especially music, poetry, and all of the visual arts. Athena caught and tamed the wild Pegasus and kindly presented him to the Muses. One day the muses began to sing on Mt. Helicon. The mountain, so filled with ecstasy, it rose to the heavens until Pegasus, under Poseidon’s command, kicked his hoof, stopping the mountain’s upward progress.
A fountain of water gushed forth called the Fountain of Hippocrene. The fountain was sacred to the Muses and is believed to be the source of music and poetic inspiration. According to legend, the birth of both wine and art occurred when Pegasus’ hooves unleashed the sacred spring of the Muses. [4] Norn’s [5] The Goddesses of Destiny In Norse mythology, the Norn’s are the demi-goddesses of destiny. They control the destinies of both gods and men, as well as the unchanging laws of the cosmos.
They are represented as three sisters: Urd (“fate”), Verdandi (“necessity”) and Skuld (“being”). They live at the base of the World Tree Yggdrasil in the realm of Asgard. Nothing lasts forever, and even the mighty Yggdrasil is subject to decay. The Norn’s try to stop this process, or at least slow it down, by pouring mud and water from the Well of Fate over its branches. This magical liquid stops the rotting process for the time being. In other myths, the Norn’s were thought to give assistance at birth, and that each person has his own personal Norn. [6]

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