Hong Kong is a little particular administrative part located at the southern portion of China. Within a little country, it has a really rich geological diverseness ( Yeung, 2010 ) . The geological diverseness can be valued in assorted facets, depending on which parties can be benefited. Some of the values can be regarded as resources, which can be used to make good to human existences. The geological resources profit our life in different ways, such as in our economic system, society and the environment. In this essay, it is traveling to concentrate how different geological resources benefit Hong Kong people in inside informations.
When speaking approximately geological resources, most people would believe of mineral ore. There are different minerals ores distributed across Hong Kong, both metallic and non-metallic one, such as the lead mine in Lin Ma Hang and the tungsten mine in Needle Hill, but all of them are closed due to no net income ( Sewell, Tang, & A ; Shaw, 2009 ) . Although the economic system of Hong Kong is no longer based with primary industry now, there was a flourishing excavation industrial activity in the yesteryear. This was the Fe ore located in Ma On Shan which was the lone industrial mine running in a big graduated table of all time in the history of Hong Kong ( Ruan, 2009 ) . The formation of the Fe ore is due to the endogenic procedures, which is described as the followers ( Wu, 2003 ) .
The volcanic activities in Ma On Shan country 1000000s old ages ago causes magma invasion. Before the volcanic activity, the type of stones in Ma On Shan was chiefly sedimentary stone. The invasion along faults causes chemical reaction between the stone and the magma, known as contact metamorphism. High temperature and force per unit area modifies the chemical science of the affected sedimentary stones, and go metamorphous stone ( Skarn ) . As the sedimentary stone is more permeable, H2O infiltrates. Magma heats up the H2O. As hot H2O has higher solubility, it solutes the minerals in the magma and brings to the lower temperature topographic points harmonizing to the jurisprudence of geothermic gradient. The fluid is known as geothermofluid. Minerals in the geothermofluid sedimentation when the H2O temperature drops, as the solubility of minerals reduces. The perennial procedure causes enrichment of minerals and forms the Fe ore.
The environing country of the mine has developed quickly with schools, markets and church established, to function the mineworkers and their households. However, the Fe mine has been abandoned in 1976, go forthing a few mineworkers remaining at that place with empty schools and church ( Ho, 2009 ) . The geological resources in Ma On Shan witnessed the rise and autumn of a topographic point and the people. The topographic point now becomes a site for tourers to boost, to hold merriment and to research the excavation history.
Besides minerals that can be sold for net income, rock quarrying and sea sand excavation can non be ignored because they are indispensable for the development of Hong Kong. Hong Kong has rich screen of volcanic stones with 50 % and 35 % of flinty stone ( Geopark, 2009 ) . They are utile for building. There are three preies, managed by CEDD, located in Lam Tei, Anderson Road and Shek O, which are really of import in supplying edifice stuffs for the building undertakings ( CEDD, 2009 ) .
Furthermore, the stone stuffs are besides used for reclamination in developing the new towns every bit good as for the Victoria Harbour. The dirt and stone minerals in the borrow country in Tai Tong East were extracted for the building of Tin Shui Wai New Town. Some of the stones in the preies and the sea sand from the sea were used for the reclamination undertakings along the Victoria Harbour. Without these resources to increase the sum of level land, it is non easy to happen adequate infinites to busy a big sum of population in Hong Kong.
Rock quarrying has a really long history in Hong Kong which can be traced back to the yesteryear when the Hong Kong had non yet opened by the British people. During that clip, Hakka people settled in different topographic points in Hong Kong, trusting on rock quarrying for life. One of the celebrated sites is the Four Hills in the East Kowloon, which are Ngau Tau Kok, Sai Tso Wan, Cha Kwo Ling and Lei Yue Mun, stand foring the beginning of rock quarrying history by Hakka people in Hong Kong ( Yu, 2009 ) .
The Hakka people have use the local stuffs to construct their houses and the stuffs are granite ( Wordie, 2007 ) . The Hakka people besides earned their life through pull outing the granite by manus and sold it. Their stones have become the building stuffs of some of import edifices such as the Legislative Council Building ( Sing Tao Daily, 2007 ) . Some of the stones are sold to Guangzhou to construct the Sacred Heart Cathedral in 1861 ( Wordie, 2007 ) . With such rich in resources, people get richer and the Hakka small towns started to turn. Their rock-mining narrative can be reflected in the Hakka common people vocal every bit good ( Li, 2010 ) . Therefore, the geological resources helped to put down the foundation of their Hakka civilization in East Kowloon. In add-on, it besides reflects the character of hardworking of Hakka people and their part to the society development.
The chemical weathering of felspar in granite leads to the formation of china clay ( Waugh, 2005 ) . Therefore, kaolin mine can be found in Cha Kwo Ling in East Kowloon every bit good. Another celebrated site utilizing china clay as the beginning for doing China is in a Hakka small town in Wun Yiu in Tai Po. In fact, the name of the topographic point reflects its economic activity V doing China. Wun Yiu has established since the in-between age of Ming Dynasty ( Chen, 2007 ) . The Hakka built a temple to praise the Saint of Potter V Fan Xian ( OA?P ) . Every twelvemonth, the Hakka people in the small town observe its birthday which is a alone civilization in that topographic point ( Chan, 2008 ) . However, due to cut downing militias of china clay, the china-making activities was stopped in 1930s and the villagers changed to farming to gain a life ( Chan, 2008 ) . The jubilation still continues. The geological resources non merely profit the economic system in at that place, but besides of import to their civilization and the societal coherence.
Besides direct stuffs extraction, human sorts so indirectly extract the minerals in dirt through agribusiness. Soil is besides an of import geological resource to people. Fertile dirts are normally weathered from pyrogenic stones because pyrogenic stones are formed in the beginning of the stone rhythm ( Troeh & A ; Thompson, 2005 ) : In the beginning of stone rhythm, the stone signifiers from chilling of lava or magma which keeps most of the minerals. By the procedures of enduring and eroding, the pyrogenic stone will be broken in pieces and transported to other topographic points through erosional agents. During the procedure of transit, the minerals in the pyrogenic stone will be lost to the environment such as solution in H2O. As a consequence, the minerals in the sedimentary stones are few, comparing with pyrogenic stone, so the dirt derived from sedimentary stones is sterile.
In Hong Kong, pyrogenic stone has the largest surface screen for approximately 85 % ( Geopark, 2009 ) , so most of the land is suited for the flora growing. Generally, the agricultural lands are found on or shut to the pyrogenic stone, particularly the volcanic stones. For illustration, the dirts and the minerals on the mountains in Lam Tusen, which the type of the stone on the mountains is volcanic stone, are carried to the low-lying land to enrich the dirt. Therefore, agricultural activities are active along the Lam Tusen Valley. Without the volcanic stones, the life of the people in there will be really rough as turning nutrient on an sterile land is hard. For that ground, geological resources, in this instance, are indispensable for the endurance of human existences.
The weather-beaten and scoured stones are besides geological resources which are of import for the development of touristry. In Hong Kong, there are different landscapes characteristics are associated with different geological procedures. Due to strong predominating air current from the E, it is easy to happen erosional coastal characteristics in the eastern portion of Hong Kong, by the action of moving ridges ( Sewell, Tang, & A ; Shaw, 2009 ) . In Tung Ping Chau, sea stack, sea cave and wave-cut platform can be found ( Ng & A ; Chan, 2008 ) . These characteristics provide beautiful sceneries for the tourers to astonish and appreciate.
Besides costal eroding, weathering is besides of import in determining the stone characteristics. For illustration in Po Toi, there are a batch of interesting and typical stone characteristics on the island, such as the Buddhist Monk and the Tortoise Traveling up the Hill ( Ng & A ; Chan, 2008 ) . These geological resources are recreational musca volitanss for people to bask during vacations. Such characteristics have attracted a batch of tourers from local and abroad, which can assist to advance the local touristry in Hong Kong.
Hong Kong has a great geodiveristy and has a possible to set up a Geopark. With the aid of the Chinese Government, the Geopark is officially opened on 3 November 2009 ( Government News, 2009 ) . The geopark is divided into two chief parts, which are the sedimentary stone parts in the Northeast New Territories and the volcanic stone parts in Sai Kung, with a sum of eight scenery sites ( HKSAR, 2010 ) . In the beginning of six months since the park established, it has attracted more than half million visitants ( Huang, 2010 ) . These tourers spend money on booking boats, engaging a usher, basking the seafood on the outlying islands and purchasing traditional seafood from the villagers. In add-on to the outgos passing outside the park, the gross generated from touristry due to the geopark, is expected about 200 million dollars a twelvemonth ( Ming Pao, 2010 ) . With the use of the geological resources, it contributes to our economic system development and provides occupations chances for the local people. It can heighten the image and repute of touristry industry of Hong Kong every bit good ( Huang & A ; Weng, 2009 ) .
Education and scientific research
Furthermore, these sites have instruction and scientific values to people. For instruction intents, these geological landforms provide a platform for people and particularly the childs to understand the endogenic procedures and exogenetic procedures in determining the Earth surface. It is astonishing to cognize the power of the Nature. The characteristics will non be formed in the manner the fables told us, such as the Amah Rock was formed because the God turns the adult female and the babe into stone ( Cai, 2009 ) . In fact, the formation of the Amah Rock is due to different sorts of enduring procedures acted on granite. Another illustration is Ma Shi Chau Special Area where is a best topographic point for geographics lesson, as sedimentary stones, coastal landforms, turn uping and blaming can be found on this small island ( Wong, 2009 ) . Therefore, the geological resources help us to heighten our physical geographics cognition.
For scientific values, the research workers and experts can understand the development of the Earth history through reading the stone samples. By understanding our yesteryear, the geological history of Hong Kong can be reviewed and so it can be used to foretell the hereafter. The environmental alteration can be identified as good, such as low-lying rise and clime alteration. They are utile for environmental modeling for scientific research. Other geological history, the human sort history can be studied, as the dirt under the surface keeps the artefacts for the archeologists in future to delve them up.
In add-ons, geodiversity supports biodiversity, through supplying nutrients for workss and home grounds for animate beings ( Ng, 2006 ) . By understanding of the maps of stones and their relationship, it can increase the public consciousness that protecting stones is a manner to protect the natural ecosystems. Therefore, the geological resources are important in assisting instruction and scientific research.
The geological resources can lend the society through supplying topographic points to bury our refuse. In Hong Kong, happening a topographic point to bury our tremendous refuse produced every twenty-four hours is hard. Presently, the society has a hot argument on the issue of spread outing the landfill site in Tseung Kwan O, doing the authorities in a hard state of affairs ( Guo, 2010 ) . Other than burying refuse, burying dead organic structures is another job that the authorities has to cover with. The deficit of infinites for hive awaying ashes is limited. Some lands are converted into ash Fieldss by some private developers to gain net income, even though some of them have non received permission from the authorities ( Cheung & A ; Wong, 2010 ) . In order to work out the jobs, the direction of the geological resources V land, has to be careful to avoid farther complications.
Legends and civilization
Finally, some of the typical stone characteristics has become a fable or being praised for its supernatural power. For fable, the Amah Rock is an illustration. One of the illustrations is the Lovers Rock in Bowen Road in the Mid-level. During the Chinese Valentine Day, a figure of people would see Lovers Rock to wish a durable relationship or hold a boy- or girlfriend ( Lu & A ; Mai, 2003 ) . For Lion Rock, it gives a sense of properties and a contemplation to the character of Hong Kong people. The geological resources provide a platform for people s imaginativeness and creativeness. It besides gives faith to people who are confused or without confident. Therefore, it contributes to our psychological science.
To reason, the geological resources are rich in this small metropolis. There are metallic and non-metallic minerals which support the local civilization, economical development and the infrastructural buildings. The typical landforms encourage touristries and so provide occupation chances. The geological characteristics can ease the instruction and scientific research. Last, the legendised stone characteristics give some cultural values to Hong Kong. These resources are indispensable to our day-to-day life as we depends it for money, nutrient, lodging and besides the psychological demands. Therefore, the geological resources should be treasured as they belong to each of us in Hong Kong. We have to collaborate together to protect them before it is excessively late.
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