All of us have seen a river – big or little, either fluxing through our town, or someplace else. Rivers are nil more than surface H2O fluxing down from a higher height to a lower height due to the pull of gravitation. One river might hold its beginning in a glacier, another in a spring or a lake. Rivers carry dissolved minerals, organic compounds, little grains of sand, crushed rock, and other stuff as they flow downstream. Rivers begin as little watercourses, which grow wider as smaller watercourse and rivers join them along their class across the land. Finally they flow into seas or oceans. Unfortunately most of the universe ‘s major rivers are to a great extent polluted.
The pollution of environment is the ‘gift ‘ of the industrial revolution. Prior to this the agricultural civilizations created important environmental impairment in the signifier of dirt erosion- through deforestation and overgrazing. The environmental debasement is a by merchandise of modern civilisation.
There has been a steady impairment in the quality of H2O of Indian rivers over several decennaries. India ‘s 14 major, 55 child and several hundred little rivers receive 1000000s of liters of sewerage, industrial and agricultural wastes. Most of these rivers have been rendered to the degree of sewerage fluxing drains. There are serious H2O quality jobs in the metropoliss, towns and small towns utilizing these Waterss. Water borne diseases are rampant, piscaries are on diminution, and even cowss are non spared from the onslaught of pollution.
Harmonizing to World Wide Fund for Nature ( WWF ) five rivers in Asia functioning over 870 million people are among the most threatened in the universe, as dikes, H2O extraction and clime alteration all take their toll.
The Ganges, Indus, Yangtze, Salween-Nu and Mekong-Lancang rivers make up half of the WWF ‘s “ top 10 ” most threatened river basins.
India has a big figure of rivers that are line of lifes for the 1000000s populating along their Bankss. These rivers can be categorized into four groups:
1.Rivers that flow down from the Himalayas and are supplied by runing snow and glaciers. This is why these are perennial, that is, they ne’er dry up during the twelvemonth.
2. The Deccan Plateau Rivers, which depend on rainfall for their H2O.
3. The coastal rivers, particularly those on the West seashore, which are short and do non retain H2O throughout the twelvemonth.
4. The rivers in the inland drainage basin of west Rajasthan, which depend on the rains. These rivers usually drain towards silt lakes or flux into the sand.
River Ganga ( Ganges ) of India has been held in high regard since clip immemorial and Hindus from all over the universe cherish the thought of a holy dip in the river under the religion that by making so they will acquire rid of their wickednesss of life. More than 400 million people live along the Ganges River. An estimated 2,000,000 individuals ceremonially bathe daily in the river. Historically besides, Ganga is the most of import river of the state and beyond uncertainty is closely connected with the history of civilisation as can be noticed from the location of the ancient metropoliss of Hardwar, Prayag, Kashi and Patliputra at its bank. To 1000000s of people it is upholder of life through battalion of canal system and irrigation of the blowing burden. Hundreds of the small towns and even the large metropoliss depend for their imbibing H2O on this river. It is believed, a fact which has besides been observed, that the H2O of Ganga ne’er decays even for months and old ages when H2O of other rivers and bureaus begins to develop bacteriums and Fungis within a twosome of yearss. This self purification feature of Ganga is the key to the sanctity and holiness of its H2O. The combination of bacteriophages and big populations of people bathing in the river have seemingly produced a self-purification consequence, in which water-borne bacteriums such as dysentery and cholera are killed off, forestalling large-scale epidemics. The river besides has an unusual ability to retain dissolved O.
With turning civilisation and population all over how long Ganga will retain its ego purification features merely clip can judge.A A A A A A
The Gangotri A Glacier, a huge sweep of ice five stat mis by 15, at the foothills of the Himalayas ( 14000 foot ) in North Uttar Pradesh is the beginning of Bhagirathi, which joins with Alaknanda ( origins nearby ) to organize Ganga at the cragged canyon-carved town of Devprayag. Interestingly, the beginnings of Indus and the Brahmaputra are besides geographically reasonably near ; the former goes through Himachal Pradesh and fans out through Punjab and Sind ( Pakistan ) into the Arabian Sea. The latter classs for most of its enormous length under assorted names through Tibet/China, ne’er far from the Nepal or Indian boundary lines, and so takes a crisp bend near the northeasterly tip of India, gathers momentum through Assam before fall ining the major watercourse of the Ganga near Dacca in Bangladesh to go the mighty Padma, river of joy and grieve for much of Bangladesh. From Devprayag to the Bay of Bengal and the vastA Sunderbans delta, the Ganga flows some 1550 stat mis, passing ( and giving life to ) some of the most thickly settled metropoliss of India, including Kanpur ( 2 million ) , Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, and Calcutta ( 14 million ) .
The largest feeder to the Ganga is the Ghaghara, which meets it before Patna, in Bihar, bearing much of the Himalayan glacier thaw from Northern Nepal. The Gandak, which comes from near Katmandu, is another large Himalayan feeder. Other of import rivers that merge with the Ganga are the Son, which originates in the hills of Madhya Pradesh, the Gomti which flows yesteryear Lucknow.
A figure of probes have been carried out on the physiochemical and biological characters of the Ganga. Lakshminarayana ( 1965 ) published a series of documents describing the consequences of surveies carried out at Varanasi during the period between March, 1957 and March, 1958. it was observed by him that the values of the most of the parametric quantities decreased during showery season while no pronounced fluctuation was observed during winters and summers.
In the same twelvemonth Chakraborty et.al. ( 1965 ) from Kanpur reported the H2O quality of Ganga at J.K. Rayon ‘s H2O consumption point and at Golaghat and Bhairoghat pumping Stationss situated at the upstream of the river. It was concluded that the H2O quality bit by bit deteriorated as it passes from Bhairoghat pumping station to the J.K. Rayon H2O consumption point in summers because in this stretch the river received waste Waterss from figure of sewerage drains.
A A twelvemonth subsequently Saxena et.al. ( 1966 ) made a systematic study of the chemical measure of Ganga at Kanpur. Harmonizing to the survey, the biological O demand, i.e. B.O.D. varied from 5.3ppm ( lower limit ) in winter to 16.0ppm ( upper limit ) in summer. The chloride ranged between 9.2 and 12.7 ppm and the river was found to be alkalic in nature except in rainy season. He concluded that the tanneries significantly increased the pollution burden of river as they discharge immense sums of wastewaters incorporating organic wastes and heavy metals. It was further reported that 40 five tanneries, ten fabric Millss and several other industrial units discharged 37.15 million gallon per twenty-four hours of waste H2O bring forthing BOD burden of about 61630 Kg/day.
Subsequently Agarwal et.al. ( 1976 ) studied the bacteriological population of the river H2O and concluded that add-on of untreated waste and sewerage was responsible for the presence of infective beings presenting menace to the occupants of the Varanasi metropolis.
Hydrobiological characteristics of the river Ganga was studied by A Pahwa and Mehrotra ( 1966 ) . The writers studied a stretch of 1090 kilometer. of river Ganga widening from Kanpur in West to Rajmahal, in Jharkhand province, in the E. They reported that the turbidness was maximal ( 1100-2170 ppm ) in monsoon and lower limit ( less than100 ppm ) during January to June. The pH of the river H2O ranged between 7.45 ( lower limit ) during June to August and 8.30 ( upper limit ) during January to May. The dissolved O, i.e. D.O. count ranged from 5.0 to 10.5 ppm with maximal values during January and February. While the minimal values were recorded in monsoon.
Bhargava ( 1982 ) in a study of entire length of the river Ganga found that quality index was far above the prescribed bound at Kanpur. He farther found that the Ganga H2O was holding remarkably fast renewing capacity by conveying down B.O.D. owing to the presence of big sum of good adopted microorganism. Harmonizing to the research Ganga is rich in polymers excreted by assorted species of bacteriums. These polymers being first-class coagulators take turbidness by curdling, puting the suspended atoms at the sewerage discharge point.
At the 1981 session of Indian Science Congress at Varanasi, scientists expressed concern at the turning pollution in the river Ganga in presence of the so Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi who inaugurated the session. At her case, Dr. M.S. Swaminathan, the so member, Planning Commission asked the Central Board for Preventation and Control of Water Pollution, New Delhi to carry on surveies on the province of the river Ganga. In coaction with the State Pollution Control Boards of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Bengal and the Centre for survey of Man and Environment Kolkata ( Calcutta ) , surveies were conducted on the ‘Sources ‘ of pollution including all human activities, land usage form and H2O quality of the river at selected sites during 1981-82 and study entitled “ Basin, sub-basin stock list of H2O pollution in the Ganga basin part-II ” was published in 1984. harmonizing to this study sewerage of 27 category I metropoliss and towns and wastewaters from 137 major industries were the chief beginning of pollution of the river. In add-on cremation of dead human organic structures and dumping of carcases aggrevated the pollution of the river.
It was Chandra ( 1981 ) who conducted surveies on the pollution position of river Ganga at Allahabad, pointed out that industries fabricating nitrogen-bearing fertilisers have important function in fouling the river water.A
Study carried out in 1986-87 on physico-chemical belongingss of river Ganga H2O at Buxar ( Unnao ) clearly revealed that extent of pollution varied in different seasons. Normally all the 23 parametric quantities studied showed high values in summer and lower during monsoons except turbidness which was high in rainy season. Valuess of BOD, COD, DO and H2S were recorded high than the tolerance bounds.
Survey on H2O quality of river Ganga at Kalakankar ( Pratapgarh in Uttar Pradesh ) revealed that even at such a distant and undisturbed topographic point like Kalakankar the river H2O was non safe for imbibing and bathing. It was besides noted that the river showed an alkaline tendency throughout the class of survey.
Harmonizing to the research done by Mehrotra ( 1990 ) , the assorted beginnings responsible for pollution of the river in Varanasi metropolis are domestic sewerage wastewaters of the industries, combustion of dead organic structures at the ghats, usage of detergents, insect powders and pesticides used in agribusiness. Study revealed the presence of toxic metals likeA quicksilver ( 65 to 520ppb ) , Lead ( less than 10 to 800 ppm ) , Cr ( less than 10 to 200 ppm ) and nickel ( less than 10 to 130 ppm ) in the deposits of Ganga river at Varanasi city.A A A
Upstream from Varanasi, one of the major pilgrim’s journey sites along the river, the H2O is relatively pure, holding a lowA Biochemical O demandA and faecal coliform count. Surveies conducted in 1983 on H2O samples taken from the right bank of the Ganga at Patna confirm thatA escheria coliA ( E.Coli. ) , faecal streptococcus and vibrio cholerae beings die two to three times faster in the Ganga than in H2O taken from the rivers Son and Gandak and from dug Wellss and tubing Wellss in the same country.
The chemical pollution of the river Ganga in Patna metropolis in Bihar province has been found slightly dismaying beside the storm drain, particularly in the parts like Rajapur, Mandiri and Krishnaghat.
Harmonizing to the study published in a book by Mr. U.K. Sinha ( 1986 ) , the concentration of Fe is higher in deposits collected from 10 meters along the bank at Mandiri part. The concentration of all the toxic metals i.e Cu, Zn, Ni and Co are higher in all the deposits collected from near the storm drain and diminishes towards mid-region of the river. The concentration of Zn is highest in the deposits collected from near the Mandiri storm drain, Antaghat storm drain and Krishnaghat storm drain.
The concentration of Cu is highest in the deposits collected from near the Krishnaghat storm drain proposing the presence Cu due to utensil work being done in Thatheri Bazar and infirmary wastes besides, said study.
Present state of affairs:
For some clip now, this romantic position of the Ganges has collided with India ‘s inexorable worlds. During the past three decennaries, the state ‘s explosive growing ( at about 1.2 billion people, India ‘s population is 2nd merely to China ‘s ) , industrialisation and rapid urbanisation have put dogged force per unit area on the sacred watercourse.
Ganga, the most sacred of rivers for Hindus, has become polluted for some old ages now. But a recent survey by Uttarakhand Environment Conservation and Pollution Control Board says that the degree of pollution in the sanctum river has reached dismaying proportions.
Thingss have come to such a base on balls that the Ganga H2O is at present non fit merely for imbibing and bathing but has become unserviceable even for agricultural intents.
As per the UECPCB survey, while the degree of coliform nowadays in H2O should be below 50 for imbibing intents, less than 500 for bathing and below 5000 for agricultural use-the present degree of coliform in Ganga at Haridwar has reached 5500.
Based on the degree of coliform, dissolved O and biochemical O, the survey put the H2O in A, B, C and D classs. While A class is considered tantrum for imbibing, B for bathing, C for agribusiness and D is for inordinate pollution degree.
Since the Ganga Waterss at Haridwar have more than 5000 coliform and even the degree of dissolved O and biochemical O does n’t conform the prescribed criterions, it has been put in the D class.
Harmonizing to the survey, the chief cause of high degree of coliform in Ganga is due to disposal of human fecal matters, urine and sewage straight into the river from its get downing point in Gaumukh till it reaches Haridwar via Rishikesh.
About 89 million liters of sewerage is daily disposed into Ganga from the 12 municipal towns that fall along its path boulder clay Haridwar. The sum of sewerage disposed into the river increases during the Char Dham Yatra season when about 15 lakh pilgrims visit the province between May and October each twelvemonth.
Apart from sewerage disposal of half-burnt human organic structures at Haridwar and risky medical waste from the base infirmary at Srinagar due to absence of an incinerator are besides adding to pollution degrees in the Ganga.
The consequence has been the gradual violent death of one of India ‘s most cherished resources. One stretch of the Yamuna River, the Ganges ‘ chief feeder, has been devoid of all aquatic animals for at least a decennary.
In Varanasi, India ‘s most sacred metropolis, the coliform bacterial count is at least 3,000 times higher than the standard established as safe by the United Nations universe Health A Organization.A A ColiformA are bacillar bacteriums that are usually found in the colons of worlds and animate beings and go a serious contamination when found in the nutrient or H2O supply.
A survey by Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department pf Zoology, Patna University, showed the presence of quicksilver in the Ganga river in Varanasi metropolis. Harmonizing to the survey, one-year average concentration of quicksilver in the river H2O was 0.00023 ppm. The concentration ranged from NT ( non traceable ) to 0.00191 ppm.
Study done by Indian Toxicological Research Centre ( ITRC ) , Lucknow during 1986-1992 showed maximal one-year concentration of quicksilver in the Ganga river H2O at Rishikesh, Allahabad territory and Dakshineswar as 0.081, 0.043 and 0.012 ppb severally.
Ganga river at Varanasi was found good within the maximal allowable criterion of 0.001 ppm prescribed for imbibing H2O by the World Health Organization.
The quicksilver studied in the Ganga river could be traced in biotic every bit good as abiotic constituents of the river at the survey site. The Hindu fans take bath in the river where quicksilver was detected in 28 % , 44 % ,75 % , 96 % , 42 % and 89 % of the river H2O, deposit, benthal zoology, fish, dirt and flora samples severally.
Though mercury taint of the river H2O has non reached an alarming extent, its presence in the river system is unreassuring. In the survey one-year average concentration of the metal in the deposits was 0.067 ppm. Sediments constitute a major pool of quicksilver in fresh H2O.
As Ganga enters the Varanasi metropolis, Hinduism ‘s sacred river contains 60,000 fecal coliform bacteriums per 100 milliliters, 120 times more than is considered safe for bathing. Four stat mis downriver, with inputs from 24 spurting cloacas and 60,000 pilgrim-bathers, the concentration is 3,000 times over the safety bound. In topographic points, the Ganges becomes black and infected. Cadavers, of semi-cremated grownups or enshrouded babes, impetus easy by.
The tannery industry mushrooming in North India has converted the Ganga River into a dumping land. The tanning industry discharges different types of waste into the environment, chiefly in the signifier of liquid wastewaters incorporating organic affairs, Cr, sulphide ammonium and other salts. As per an estimation, approximately 80-90 % of the tanneries use Cr as a tanning agent. Of this, the fells take up merely 50-70 % , while the remainder is discharged as wastewater. Pollution becomes acute when tanneries are concentrated in bunchs in little country like Kanpur. Consequently, the Leather-tanning sector is included in the Red class of industries due to the possible inauspicious environmental impact caused by tannery wastes.
Highly contaminated deposits are adversely impacting the ecological operation of rivers due to heavy metal mobilisation from urban countries into biosphere. Distribution of heavy metals in deposits of the river Ganga and its feeders have been carried out by several workers. Monitoring of Ganga River from Rishikesh to Varanasi indicated that Kannauj to Kanpur and Varanasi are the most contaminated stretches of the river Ganga. Analysis of upstream and down stream H2O and deposit revealed a 10-fold addition in chromium degree.