In 1950s, ETA as organization emerged as a more radical political wing of Basque national movement, represented by the PNV. ETA’s activity has been conducted on the both ideological and “practical” or terrorist basis. According to historians and politicians, examples of ETA’s ideological basis were denunciation of racism, defense of the Basque language, national rights and history and ultimate commitment to the Basque working-class. However, ETA became more famous due to their terrorist practices with explosions in Bilbao, Vitoria and Santander in 1959 being first examples of such organizational strategy carried by ETA.
Lrvin (1999) describes ETA as an organization that has caused many deaths and injuries, and a great deal of damage to property, and many of its own members have fallen in the armed struggle. ETA played a leading role in the struggle over nuclear plant at Lemoiz, which resulted in total of 300 attacks against installations, and about a dozen of people killed. Despite serious mistakes ETA made over decades, the social policies advocated by this terrorist organization have given it considerable influence in various sectors of Basque life, such as politics, culture, festivals, international relations, the language, and in others.
This paper aims to analyze the political and organizational dynamic binding the Basque nationalism and Euzdaki ‘ta Askatasuna (ETA), in both their non-violent and violent manifestations, from the ETA’s establishment through decades of democratic rule. The paper also defines and assesses the methods, tactics and strategies developed by ETA accompanied with Basque nationalist forces to advance their particular organizational and ideological interests.
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