Different literatures were studied to specify and to warrant the importance of the different keywords as they relate to the survey every bit good as to hold a good background on the organic structure of cognition. This certainly will be good to the apprehension of the kernel of ICT tools in Education as they are merely referred as Educational Technology Tools.
Technology is going an progressively influential factor in instruction. The usage of computing machines and nomadic phones as complements to educational patterns are really up-to-date development in the country as we are speaking about on-line instruction. The detonation of computing machine usage in different economic countries brought about the ICT dimension in about everything we do these yearss. The demand of new accomplishments and apprehension of pupils and Educators are enforcing itself as a world, besides the environment in which instruction and acquisition is taking topographic point is under changeless alteration every bit good as the direction of the pupils. It is of import to observe that, in order to put the context, by and large talking, there is no 1 accepted definition of what constitutes engineering.
Technology is the word associated with anything that aims to ease the human life through alteration. Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 “ Real World of Technology ” lectures: defines engineering as a “ pattern, the manner we do things around here ” . The Merriam-Webster dictionary offers a definition of the term as: “ the practical application of cognition particularly in a peculiar country ” and “ a capableness given by the practical application of cognition ” .
2.2 Education, Teaching and Learning Process
Education from the Webster ‘s 1828 Dictionary read as follows: The conveying up, as of a kid, direction ; formation of manners. Education comprehends all that series of direction and subject which is intended to edify the apprehension, correct the pique, and organize the manners and wonts of young person, and suit them for utility in their hereafter Stationss. To give kids a good instruction in manners, humanistic disciplines and scientific discipline, is of import ; to give them a spiritual instruction is indispensable ; and an huge duty remainders on parents and defenders who neglect these responsibilities.
Education is a construct in which Instruction, Teaching and Learning are major pillars:
Direction refers to the facilitating of larning toward identified aims, delivered either by an teacher or other signifiers.
Teaching refers to the actions of a existent unrecorded teacher designed to leave larning to the pupil.
Learning refers to larning with a position toward fixing scholars with specific cognition, accomplishments, or abilities that can be applied instantly upon completion.
For, instruction is any act or experience that has a formative consequence on the head, character or physical ability of an person. In its proficient sense instruction is the procedure by which society intentionally transmits its accrued cognition, accomplishments and values from one coevals to another. However at that place has ever been a treatment on the affair of guaranting continuity of go throughing on cognition and a affair of furthering creativeness, which propels the scholars to the universe of terra incognitas and forces the coming out of it with invention and inventiveness. Both of these maps relate every bit to knowledge and attitudes, to understanding and behaviors. They are the kernel of the teaching/learning procedure. We want creativeness, but we want it to emerge from what is known and understood. We want continuity and that excessively from what is known and understood.
Learning environments in schools typically involve one or more grownup instructors connected with a figure of pupils, normally in good defined physical scenes. Physically it may be in a room, full of peculiar furniture and equipment. The topographic point of computing machines in larning for the bulk of kids is most likely to happen in the schoolroom and, for an increasing figure, at place. However, most experts in the field of educational calculating would characterize computing machines as synergistic and therefore acknowledge them a topographic point within the relationship constructions of the schoolroom acquisition environment, non merely the physical environment.
The course of study is concerned with
What is learned and taught: includes aims, content, and larning results ( the cognition, accomplishments and attitudes that pupils are intended to show ) .
How this acquisition and instruction occurs: concerns teaching/learning methodological analysis, learning schemes and media resources.
Most teaching/learning methods and schemes involve the usage of some equipment. Some learning methods may merely include the usage of a chalkboard and chalk while others may do usage of a telecasting or overhead projector. This equipment and its usage within the course of study are frequently referred to as educational engineering.
2.3 Educational Technology and ICT
Educational engineering concerns the engineering that is used to ease the teaching/learning procedure. As such it is included in the how portion of the course of study. We could see educational engineering as the tools of the learning trade, portion of the medium used to convey the course of study. Thus the engineering used is determined by the intended course of study. Besides portion of the context of the course of study concerns the function of the instructor, the physical scene and the general pedagogical positions of the instructor and instruction system. These are likely to impact the engineering used and may affect the usage of computing machines.
Technology can be seen to be impacting the course of study both in footings of content and methodological analysis, there are a figure of cases where the course of study has been changed due to alterations in engineering, innovation of new engineering has added content to the course of study ( e.g. engineering based on electricity ) or new engineering has made parts of the content obsolete ( e.g. utilizing reckoners alternatively of logarithms for computation ) .
Information and communicating engineerings ( ICTs ) are a “ diverse set of tools and resources used to pass on, make, circulate, shop, and manage information. ” These engineerings include computing machines, the Internet, airing engineerings ( wireless and telecasting ) , and telephone. Nowadays there is an increasing involvement in how computing machines and the Internet can better instruction at all degrees. Older ICT engineerings, such as wireless and telecasting, have for over 40 old ages been used for unfastened and distance acquisition. There is a assortment of nomenclature that describes the ways computing machines are integrated into the acquisition procedure and in the schoolroom: technology-mediated acquisition, computer-aided direction, distance instruction, distance acquisition, educational engineering, place acquisition engineerings, computer-based instruction, instructional engineering, multimedia, communications systems, Web-based acquisition, educational multimedia applications, and computer-mediated communicating etc are merely a sample of those. This variableness in nomenclature is non a affair of dissension among research workers, but merely implies that engineering is a word that is used to depict different things to different people. Technology is a term that is used by many to depict, survey, and measure the assorted ways computing machines are integrated into instruction, both inside and outside the schoolrooms.
2.4 Integrating Technology in Teaching
Furthermore, there is no consensus about what constitutes engineering in larning or learning. However, the common nexus tends to be some usage of the personal computing machine to help instruction or acquisition in some signifier or manner. These engineerings run the continuum of integrating in instruction from full classs put on the Web to engineering integrated into a specific lesson. Though most research surveies focus on computer-based engineering, there are other learning and larning engineerings that are non computer-based. These can include overhead projectors, papers cameras, optical maser arrows, robotics, telecasting, VCR, DVD, presentation equipment, sound systems, Cadmiums, tape recordings, simulation machines, and theoretical accounts. Some research workers even consider the traditional piece of chalk and chalkboard a type of engineering.
Many pedagogues have argued that the appropriate usage of ICT by pupils can help instructors in finding and providing for the anterior cognition of pupils. Further, it is normally besides argued that ICT can help pupils in prosecuting cognitively to a greater deepness with cognition spheres. That is pupils are supported in using the full scope of believing accomplishments within reliable contexts. This is frequently discussed in footings of cognitive taxonomies such as that provided by Bloom ( 1964 ) .
Knowledge The scholar must remember information ( i.e. convey to mind the appropriate stuff ) .
Comprehension The scholar understands what is being communicated by doing usage of the communicating.
Application The scholar uses abstractions ( e.g. thoughts ) in peculiar and concrete state of affairss.
Analysis The scholar can interrupt down a communicating into its constitutional elements or parts.
Synthesis The scholar puts together elements or parts to organize a whole.
Evaluation The scholar makes judgements about the value of stuff or methods for a given intent.
By and large talking, there is an premise that engineering Fosters larning simply by its usage in the educational procedure. Ehrmann ( 1999 ) sums up this premise really nicely: Technologies such as computing machines ( or pencils ) do n’t hold predetermined impacts ; it ‘s their utilizations that influence outcomes. This statement seems obvious, but many establishments act as though the mere presence of engineering will better larning. They use computing machines to learn the same things in the same ways as earlier, yet they expect larning results to be better. ( p. 32 )
In his essay, Clark ( 1983 ) said compactly: “ aˆ¦media are mere vehicles that deliver direction but do non act upon pupil accomplishment any more than the truck that delivers our food markets causes alterations in our nutrition ” ( p. 445 ) .
“ if learning occurs as a consequence of exposure to any media, the acquisition is caused by the instructional method embedded in the media presentation. ( p. 26 )
Further, he posited that different types of media could be substituted for each other, because media are non responsible for any acquisition that might take topographic point. Media are non the causal agents in the acquisition procedure ; instead, instructional method is the active ingredient or accelerator that causes larning to take topographic point. In contrast to Clark ‘s statement, Kozma ( 1994 ) believed that the more appropriate inquiry was non whether media do influence acquisition, but will they act upon larning. He besides contended that merely because we have non established a relationship between media and acquisition does non intend that one does non be. He believed that, since we do non to the full understand the relationship between media and acquisition, we have yet to mensurate it, and the failure to set up this relationship is caused in portion by our theories of acquisition, or more specifically, behaviorism, with its basic premise that a stimulus causes a response. Therefore, if the stimulation is non present, there is no possibility for response. Kozma ( 1994 ) explained that in Clark ‘s position media are merely “ mere vehicles ” or conduits for an instructional method ( stimulation ) that elicit a response ( larning ) . Kozma argues that larning is a much more complex procedure than merely a series of stimulus-response connexions. Learning, in his position, is defined as “ an active, constructive, cognitive and societal procedure by which the scholar strategically manages available cognitive, physical and societal resources to make new cognition by interacting with information in the environment and incorporating it with information already stored in memory ” ( p.8 ) . Therefore, in Kozma ‘s position, since the definition acquisition has evolved to incarnate more of a constructive procedure, our measuring of this procedure must germinate every bit good.
Still others have argued for a complete reframing of the argument over engineering and its consequence on acquisition. Jonassen, Campbell, and Davidson ( 1994 ) believed that the Clark/Kozma arguments focused excessively much on direction and media and non plenty on the properties of the scholar who finally constructs the cognition.
With all the assorted sentiments on the relationship between engineering and acquisition, it begs the inquiry: who is right? It appears that each theoretician brings an of import position to the tabular array. Clark is right that engineering has non needfully revolutionise the procedure of acquisition.
Technology has non helped worlds develop a new manner to larn. Learning is still something that is performed by the person. However, in Clark ‘s position, all an teacher would necessitate to make is implant the appropriate instructional method into his/her lesson and acquisition should take topographic point.
We know, nevertheless, despite many teachers ‘ best attempts and superior instruction abilities, larning does non ever take topographic point. Kozma is besides right that we must analyze engineering and larning beyond a behavioristic context. Learning is an knowing act ( Jonnasen, 1994 ) and the human being making the acquisition should non be discounted. Research workers have established that there is no important difference between larning with engineering in distance instruction classs and larning in a traditional schoolroom, but they do non discourse how human motive is influenced by engineering. This could be a really of import losing component in the argument.
Which side you take in this argument depends mostly upon how you define larning. If you subscribe to more behavioristic positions of acquisition, Clark will do more sense to you. If you conceive of acquisition as a more cognitive or constructivist procedure, you would be more likely to hold with Kozma or Jonnasen.
From a pedagogical attack, Information-processing theories emerged from a subdivision of cognitive psychological science that focused on the memory and storage procedures that enable larning. Theorist in this country explores how a individual receives information and shops it in memory. The construction of memory that allows the acquisition of something new, relate to and is built on something learned antecedently and besides how a scholar retrieves information from short-run and long-run memory and applies it to new state of affairss. The well-known information-processing theoretician, David Ausubel, proposed that the manner a scholar receives and shops information affects the utility of the information, for illustration, by reassigning current acquisition to larning other accomplishments.
On the other manus, the theoretical account of the behaviorist B.F. Skinner, infers that portion of the Educator ‘s occupation is to modify the behavior of pupils through positive support, therefore under puting behaviour alteration techniques in schoolroom direction and programmed direction. To this we may state that, the stimulus-response interaction between pupil and engineering can be introduced through computing machines so as to help direction, by supplying drills and patterns on antecedently learned accomplishments, from pattern and tutorial package.
The cognitive constructivist, Jean Piaget ‘s theory has two major parts: one constituent that predicts what kids can and can non understand at different ages, and a theory of development that describes how kids develop cognitive abilities. The cardinal deductions to these are: First, acquisition is an active procedure where direct experience, doing mistakes, and looking for solutions is critical for the assimilation and adjustment of information. The presentation of information is of import, when it is introduced as an assistance to job work outing. It functions as a tool instead than an stray arbitrary fact. Second, larning should be whole, reliable, and “ existent. ” Therefore, in a Piagetian schoolroom there is less accent on straight learning specific accomplishments and more accent is laid on larning in a meaningful context. Technology, peculiarly multimedia, offers a huge array of such chances, with the support of educational package on videodiscs and CD-ROMs, Educators can supply a acquisition environment that helps to spread out the conceptual and experiential background of the audience.
The societal constructivist, L. S. Vygotsky ‘s theory has much more room for an active and involved Educator. He claimed that the cardinal point of his psychological attack is mediation. Through mediation human cognitive growing and acquisition as equals and other members of his community engages in relationships with the stuff and societal environment. Thus the usage of engineering can be used to link pupils to each other via electronic mail, forum, newsgroups etc.
Now, from here, which approach to take? Which is best suited to heighten larning? What hardware or package to utilize? There is no right or incorrect replies to these inquiries, geting hardware and package bundles will partially decide the job. It is up to the Educator, who knows the lesson aims, the expected consequences and the pupils, to take which attack to utilize and what engineering should attach to the attack. However the finding of the engineering ‘s worthiness for a given lesson could be answered by the undermentioned inquiries:
Is the lesson content worthwhile? ( Are at that place clear aims, connected to criterions or important inquiries, etc? )
Make the lesson activities engage pupils?
How does engineering heighten the lesson in ways that would non be possible without it?
Educators should so look for the best agencies to ease a diverseness of larning manners, and need to be competent perceivers of the societal surroundings in which scholars interact every bit good as knowing about the content to which they wish to expose scholars. Hence, pedagogues ‘ development is perfectly indispensable if engineering provided to schools is to be used efficaciously. Simply by puting computing machines in schools, supplying cyberspace installations, passing on IT hardware and package, without financing the pedagogue professional development every bit good, is uneconomical. Educators ‘ preparation of the usage and application of engineering is the cardinal finding factor to better pupil public presentation for both knowledge acquisition and accomplishments development enabled by engineering.
Information engineering professionals have an maxim that “ an unsupported engineering is an fresh engineering. ” In an article for The Chronicle of Higher Education titled “ When Good Technology Means Bad Teaching, ” Jeffrey Young made the instance that a ill supported engineering is really worse than no engineering at all. He argued that giving instructors engineering without preparation has frequently done more injury than good to learning and larning. This is doubtless true. At the teacher degree without proper preparation and back up the pedagogues are faced with:
the fright of embarrassment in forepart of students and co-workers, loss of position and an effectual degrading of professional accomplishments ( Russell & A ; Bradley 1997 )
schoolroom direction troubles when utilizing ICT, particularly where pupil-to-computer ratios are hapless ( Drenoyianni & A ; Selwood 1998 ; Cox et Al. 1999 )
deficiency of the cognition necessary to enable instructors to decide proficient jobs when they occur ( VanFossen 1999 )
Educational engineering is non, and ne’er will be, transformative on its ain ; it requires pedagogues who can incorporate engineering into the course of study and utilize it to better pupil larning. In other words, computing machines can non replace pedagogues, as they are the key to whether engineering is being used suitably and efficaciously. They need to understand a topic adequate to convey its kernel to pupils. While traditionally this has involved talking on the portion, new instructional schemes put the pedagogue more into the function of class interior decorator, treatment facilitator, and manager and the pupil more into the function of active scholar, detecting the topic of the class.
Even if pupils could larn independently with small or no engagement from their instructors on how to utilize engineering to heighten their acquisition and accomplishments development, they are extremely improbable to hold those chances if pedagogues do non allow them hold entree to the engineering. The term “ computer-assisted acquisition ” ( CAL ) has been progressively used to depict the usage of engineering in learning. Educators besides need professional development in the pedagogical application of those accomplishments to better instruction and acquisition. They should be empowered to develop their cognition and accomplishments actively and experientially, in a assortment of larning environments, both single and collaborative. This, include a assortment of larning schemes, embracing direct direction, tax write-off, treatment, drill and pattern, tax write-off, initiation, and sharing. Therefore accent in the classs should be on the ways engineering can ease and heighten his profession lives.
Educators ‘ readying plans are indispensable and as described by Kook ( 1997 ) it is “ the important issue to be addressed ” ( p.58 ) . The instructor of the hereafter will depend on the computing machine for both personal productiveness and for instructional activities. Kook lists 33 primary computing machine accomplishments for instructors, runing from voyaging the Windows desktop environment, to utilizing IRC confab, to put ining package. Kook suggests that these accomplishments should be portion of the needed classs for prospective instructors and insists that in the following century “ teacher instruction will be forced to suit a considerable sum of transmutation to let instructors to work efficaciously in the Information Age ” ( p.59 ) .
Computer engineering can non be effectual in the schoolroom without instructors who are knowing about both the engineering itself and about how to utilize it to run into educational ends. The most common barrier to adequate preparation is the disbursal involved. Without preparation, nevertheless, other engineering disbursement has a fringy consequence ( Boyd, 1997 ) .
Learning to run computing machine hardware, turning comfy with many different package applications, developing direction systems for pupil computing machine usage, and redesigning lesson programs to do usage of engineering, takes a great trade of clip. When combined with thwarting hardware bugs and package bugs, the undertaking can go dashing for even the most determined. Often, what stops people is one small thing that they did n’t cognize how to make. If you have a room full of childs when something goes incorrect, it discourages you from seeking it once more ( Zehr, 1997, p.3 ) .
Leading to the inquiry why school instructors do n’t utilize, and sometimes defy, the usage of computing machines? Hannafin and Savenye ( 1993 ) name some research-based possible accounts for instructor opposition to utilizing computing machines. These grounds include: ill designed package, uncertainty that computing machines improve larning results, bitterness of the computing machine as a rival for pupil ‘s attending, unsupportive decision makers, increased clip and attempt required of the instructor, fright of losing control of “ centre phase, ” and fright of “ looking stupid. ” in forepart of the category.
Sing the instructor ‘s function as a continuum, Hannafin and Savenye ( 1993 ) besides put the function of traditional lector and imparter of cognition at one terminal and the function of manager, observer, and facilitator at the other terminal. They so generalize that the traditional terminal of the continuum embraces an objectivist larning theory while the other terminal is likely to encompass constructivism. The instructor ‘s position of acquisition, so, could be another beginning of opposition to classroom engineering. A instructor may be unfastened to engineering but resist the attach toing alteration in larning theory. This would propose that in add-on to supplying developing in engineering, schools and territories need to supply information, preparation, encouragement, and support to instructors in traveling toward a more constructivist position of instruction. The direction should defend the alteration, policies has to be adopted as from the direction degree down to the pupils, everybody contributing and attach toing the reform for it to be successful and to be able to take out the maximal benefit. This issue is addressed with trouble, because “ Principals, on norm, are 50 old ages old. We ‘ve got a coevals of people who are really barriers to the extract of engineering in school systems and are afraid of it themselves ” ( Quoted in Trotter, 1997, p.1 ) .
It has “ become clear over the past decennary that simple motivational and short-workshop strategies are immensely deficient to enable veteran ( and even new, computer-generation ) instructors to learn otherwise, and to learn good with engineerings ” ( Hawkins and Honey, 1993 ) .
The grounds suggested that instructors who use engineering in their schoolrooms are more effectual if they have received preparation, if they have district-level support and if they have a web of other computer-using instructors to portion experiences with.
Swan and Mitrani province that “ computing machines can alter the nature of instruction and acquisition at its most basic degree ” ( 1993 ) . We need to guarantee that we are utilizing our current cognition about the application of engineering in instruction as a footing for continuing in the hereafter.
The direction has besides its portion in the integrating of the the educational engineering in the school. Policies and support plans must be initiated from the top direction and they must be portion of and attach to the alteration. The most of import barrier to this integrating is the fiscal barriers. They include the cost of hardware, package, care ( peculiar of the most advanced equipment ) , and widen to some staff development. Froke ( 1994b ) said, “ refering the money, the challenge was alone because of the nature of the engineering. ” The initial investing in hardware is high but the costs of engineering have to portion of the cost of direction. The integrating reveals the institutional support through leading, planning and the engagement of instructors every bit good as directors in implementing alteration.
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