Canada’s fight for independence was difference from that of the United States. Canada gradually evolved peacefully as a nation while the United States became an independent country through a war. During 1867, a Confederation of six colonies of the British North American joined to form a new country, Canada. Gradually, the military, financial and administrative support from the British slowly reduced as the new formed country took charge and more responsibility in the control of its future and destiny.
This was strengthened by Canada sending many troops to fight with Britain and its participation in the First World War. Great Britain’s application of the Statute of Westminster to its dominions from the Acts of Parliament, granted along with Canada, New Zealand, the Irish, Newfoundland, Union of South Africa, and Australia full independence. This statute only consecrated practices that had already been established firmly by Great Britain. With Canada, the road to independence began with Britain’s grant of a responsible government and finally legislature to its colonies from the period of 1847 to 1848.
The crowning of the Confederation in 1867 had the intention and purpose of giving Britain’s dominions the complete control of their governance and internal affairs. These lead to the gradual takeover of the colony’s governments from Great Britain’s control. The most critical event that fostered Canada’s independence was the withdrawal of British Armies in 1871 from Canada, followed by the Washington Treaty which took place in the same year. The treaty included a Canadian who joined the British negotiating team that would lead to deliberations and the signing of the treaty on Canada’s behalf.
These events led to the development and establishment of a Supreme Court in Canada in 1875. This process was accelerated by the First World War with the support of Canada to Great Britain’s troops in the war. Canada grew and evolved in the international scene during the period of post-World War. The country participated in the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 and was also elected to be a member in the League of Nations. Great Britain recognized its former colonies to be autonomous communities as was the British Empire through the Balfour resolution of 1926.
The Dominions were considered as equal in status and were not subordinate in any way with reference to aspects that pertained to their external or domestic affairs. They were recognized to be members of the British Commonwealth of Nations united by their common allegiance by 1931. The American Revolutionary War occurred between the period of 1775 and 1783. This conflict erupted and war broke out between the revolutionaries who were the thirteen British colonies and Great Britain, who declared their intention for independence like the United States of America in the year 1776.
The war was accelerated by the rising revolutions that were undertaking in the colonies in the struggle against economic and political policies imposed by the British Empire. The war spread out far and wide, further than the British North America. The conflicts made many Native Americans to be divided along the war lines and they fought on each side of the conflict. The British used their naval superiority to capture territories and occupy them, mostly the coastal cities. They could not control the countryside where the majority of the people lived.
In 1777, America gained victory at Saratoga which compounded the revolution and escalated with the entrance of Spain, France and Netherlands war against Great Britain. With the participation of the French, triumphant naval victory was witnessed in Chesapeake in 1781 leading to a decisive surrender of the British army at Yorktown. In 1783, the independence of America was recognized by the Treaty of Paris. Colonists were divided in the American revolutionary on which side they would support the war with some areas experiencing civil war in their struggles.
The colonists loyal to Britain departed from America and settled in other British colonies mostly Canada, to evade the conflicts with the revolutionaries. When the war commenced, the American revolutionaries did not have a standing army and relied on traditional defense systems where each colony used local militia tactics and methods. This affected their extended operations in the fight coupled with the fact that the militia groups did not have the adequate training and discipline that is mandatory for regular soldiers.
Though they sometimes succeeded to suppress loyalist activity and occasionally against the British troops. This plight led Americans to seek ways that they would coordinate military efforts and train a regular army. In 1778, the North America colonial rebellion translated into an international war, where France joined United States after learning the Saratoga victory. Spain joined the war as allies of France in 1779 while Netherlands in 1780 as combatants. The three countries were disquietly giving financial aid to the revolutionaries since the commencement of the war, to mitigate Britain’s emerging status as a uperpower. Britain had superior naval strength over the American revolutionaries, but with entrance of the French, it contested the British superiority. Spain joined the war with the mission of invading England to recapture Minorca and Gibraltar. The Canadian government was created based on parliamentary democracy which had strong democratic traditions with the Queen of Canada as the head of state and a federal system of government. Canada’s constitution governs the lawful structure of the country’s traditions and conventions.
The Senate of Canada does not have adequate power to oppose or initiate legislation because it is selected by the Prime Minister. However, the United States has a regionally elected senate therefore there is equal power in the regions which make it more unified as a country as opposed to Canada which lacks the balance. The president’s power in the U. S is balanced in the Senate and the House of Representatives. Historians have often developed theories that would explain the loss of Great Britain in the war which they were expected to win.
The Empire had military advantages from the beginning primarily because of the naval superiority and professional regular military over its Dominions like America. The major disadvantage that faced them was the distance in shipping supplies and troops across the Atlantic Ocean. The Americans had the advantage of local sources of food and manpower and knowledge of the territory unlike the British who were compounded by logistical problems. Bibliography Black, J. (2001). War for America: The Fight for Independence. Analysis from a noted British military historian. Sutton Publishing. UK.
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