Create a 2 pages page paper that discusses history of architecture of 20th century. HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE: ESSAY QUESTION due: Industrialization in architecture refersto cheap, rational, efficient and fast building techniques. This paper will discuss the role of industrialization in the progression of design from the late 18th to the early 20th century. In addition, the paper highlights the effects of industrialization on ornament, society, materials and the society.
The first example is Madeleine, Paris, Alexandre-Pierre Vignon, 1807, was a sanctified site dedicated to Mary Magdalene in 1182. During the French revolution in 1792-1804, the foundations of the sacred building were eliminated. The church was constructed using neo-classical architecture that displayed Napoleon’s authority. The temple represented ‘temple of glory’ for France’s imperial armies. The building consists of eight columns, and the entablature is made beautiful with bipartite architrave and a frieze with ornaments of putti and garlands. The Madeleine, Paris, Alexandre-Pierre Vignon, 1807, triggered the greatness of Imperial Rome and sought to restore the association of state and church.1
The second example is Gallery, Strawberry Hill, London, Horace Walpole, 1747-90. The building is constructed using the Gothic architecture. It was created and designed as a Gothic fantasy.2 The building represented the fashionable society of the Georgian culture. The third example is Orchard House, Hertfordshire, C. F. A. Voysey, 1899. The building represents the Arts and Craft style. The building materials consist of tile dressings, brick, and stone. The original door is made of wrought iron strap hinges finishing with heart shaped letter box.3 The fourth example is The Opera, Paris, Charles Garnier, 1862 built by architect Charles Garnier. It is a large building with a stage that can accommodate a total of 450 artists. It employs the design of Napoleon III style and symbolizes the Imperial regime. The decoration comprises of winged figures, friezes, embellishments, and columns. The cherubs, gold leaf, nymphs, and velvet make the interior. The ceiling of building was painted by Chagall in 1964. The building transformed the society and improved its economy through hosting festivities of the Emperor’s retinue.4
In conclusion, the industrialization saw many people move from the country to the city and triggered the design of new building types. During this time of industrialization, the Western world encountered the French Revolution and American Revolution that influenced architecture. The technology advance led to the replacement of traditional materials such as stone and brick with glass and ferrous metals.5
Bowers, Paige. “Building the Big Chief: Charles Garnier and the Paris of His Time.” PhD
diss., Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts In The Department of History By Paige Bowers BA, Louisiana State University, 2012.
Cunningham, Lawrence, and John J. Reich. 2010. Culture & values: a survey of the
humanities / Lawrence S. Cunningham, John J. Reich. Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
English Heritage. “The Orchard – Chorleywood – Hertfordshire – England.” British Listed
Buildings. Accessed March 19, 2015.
Khan Academy. “Khan Academy.” Khan Academy. January 1, 2015. Accessed March 19,
Telegraph Media Group Limited. “Horace Walpoles Gothic Castle at Strawberry Hill.” The
Telegraph. January 1, 2015. Accessed March 19, 2015.