According to George Kimball, learning Is the result of a reinforced practice which results in a change in behavior. However, learning may not necessarily demonstrate itself in a change in behavior, but through the acquisition of knowledge. In other words, after learning, the individual will have new knowledge or be capable of doing something they would not have been able to do otherwise (Olson & Hermann, 2013). For example, when a child Is being potty trained, he learns how to use the toilet; his behavior will change from using a diaper to using the toilet o relieve himself.
To further explain the concept of learning, we will look at the role of behavior in relation to learning, classical and operant conditioning, and the relationship between learning and cognition (Olson & Hermann, 2013). Role of Behavior In Relation to Learning According to Simile’s deflation of learning, there are several ways In which learning can only be inferred from an observable modification in behavior. In other words, learning must be translated into observable behavior (Olson & Hermann, 2013).
However, a change in behavior may not be observable immediately, that is, there may e a potential to act differently tat later time. Lastly, according to Kimball, learning in the form of experience or practice, which must be reinforced, will result in a change in behavior (Olson & Hermann, 2013). With the exception of B. F. Skinner, most learning theorists agree that the learning process can only be assumed from modifications in behavior. However, not all changes in behavior are the result of learning.
Some changes in behavior could be the result of a temporary state, such as illness, fatigue, or drug use (Olson & Hermann, 2013). Some behaviors do not need to be learned, such as breathing or sweating. These behaviors are called homeostasis mechanisms. Their purpose Is to regulate a physiological stability. Humans are also born with reflexes. These reflexes, along with homeostasis, are necessary for survival. Learning Is often Identified through a relatively permanent change in behavior (Olson & Hermann, 2013).
Types of Learning There are two primary types of learning In terms of a procedures that can modify behavior: classical controlling and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning was first developed by Ivan Pavlov when he accidental discovered that his dogs had earned to associate the sound of a bell with dinner time, which caused the dogs to salivate (Olson & Hermann, 2013). There are two requirements to classical conditioning. There must first be a natural reaction to an existing stimulus, such as an event or object. Next, the unconditioned stimulus that elicits a natural response Is paired with a new or “neutral” stimulus.
The result Is that the formerly neutral my mom believes that giving her dog a high five before leaving the house makes her lucky because she won a couple of times at the casino after doing so. This prestigious behavior is a common example of classical conditioning in everyday life (Olson & Hermann, 2013). The second form of conditioning is operant conditioning, sometimes called instrumental conditioning. Operant conditioning is a term first developed by B. F. Skinner, who used an apparatus he called the Skinner Box. The Skinner box was used to introduced a reinforce to condition a desired response (Olson & Hermann, 2013).
Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning in that the organism must act in a specific way before it is reinforced; in other words, enforcement is reliant on the organisms behavior. With classical conditioning, the reaction is considered to be involuntary (Olson & Hermann, 2013). The most important aspect of operant conditioning is that a reinforce is used to strengthen a behavior. There are four different types of reinforces: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment (Olson & Hermann, 2013).
Positive reinforcement is the addition of something agreeable or pleasant to strengthen a behavior. For example, giving the dog a treat after performing the trick properly. Negative reinforcement is the amoeba of something negative or unpleasant from the situation to strengthen the behavior. For example, when the students are well-behaved the teacher removes the essay question from the test (Olson & Hermann, 2013). Now, positive punishment is the addition of something the organism views as unpleasant to decrease or weaken a behavior.
For example, when the students are misbehaving, the teacher adds an essay question to the test. Lastly, negative punishment is the removal of something pleasant from the situation to weaken the behavior. When a child is misbehaving, taking away his or her favorite toy (Olson & Hermann, 2013). Relationship Between Learning and Cognition Cognition and learning are closely associated and are codependent on one another. Without cognitive processes, learning cannot exist. The cognitive processes consist of thinking, remembering, knowing, and problem-solving.
Other cognitive processes involve storing, receiving, processing, and using information learned by the individual (Olson & Hermann, 2013). Learning is the manner in which an individual gains knowledge or skills through experience and practice, which causes a change in behavior. Learning requires the use of many cognitive processes. Cognition is classically thinking, but not everything a person thinks about will be stored in their long-term memory for later use. In order to learn, a person must store the new knowledge into their long-term memory, usually done through repetition (Olson & Hermann, 2013).
How memory processes information varies on an individual basis. Some people are able to recall information after Just one experience, others need to repetition or practice to be able to recall the same information (Olson & wants to keep for retrieval at a later time. For example, when I was a child I watched a dinosaur movie for the first time, and did to have the knowledge to identify “the monsters”. Once my mother identified the monsters as dinosaurs to me I now had the cognitive experience of “dinosaur. I loved the movie and the idea of dinosaurs so much that over the next few months I read as much as I could about dinosaurs. Through reading and looking at pictures, I gained the ability to identify many different species of dinosaurs. Eventually, I became able to identify other reptilian animals of various sizes. Conclusion In summary, learning is the product of practice and experience that has been reinforced which results in a behavior modification. On the other hand, learning does not always reveal itself in a change in behavior, but through the procurement of knowledge.
However, most learning theorists believe that the learning process can only be presumed from a change in behavior. A relatively permanent change in behavior is a good indicator if learning has taken place. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Are two primary types of learning in terms of a processes that can modify behavior. The difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning is that in operant conditioning is that the organism must act in a specific ay before it is reinforced; in classical conditioning reinforcement is reliant on the organisms behavior.
Learning and cognition have a close relationship and are codependent on one another. Without cognitive processes, learning cannot exist. In this paper, we looked at the concept of learning, we looked at the role of behavior in relation to learning, classical and operant conditioning, and the relationship between learning and cognition. References Olson, M. H. & Hermann, B. R. (2013). An introduction to theories of learning (9th deed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
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