Superpower Relations 1943-1991 The Breakdown of the Wartime Alliance The Breakdown of the wartime alliance Although allies, cracks were already appearing in the Soviet-American alliance by 1945. Stalin was particularly suspicious of Britain’s policy before the war of appeasement, which he thought aimed secretly to encourage Hitler to attack Russia. He was also unhappy with the US/British failure to open up a second front in Europe before June 1944.
On the other hand the British and Americans were worried about Soviet troops in Eastern Europe and their failure to help the Warsaw Uprising against the Nazis. The question remained- would the USA and USSR remain friends following the removal of the one factor which kept them united- the defeat of Germany? [pic] American and Russian troops meet at Torgau on the Elbe, 25th April 1945 World War Two: K/W/L Grid What do I know about WW2? (complete at start of What do I want to know? What have I learnt? lesson) (complete at start of lesson) (complete at end of lesson using the following pages). The war in Russia was to change the course of World War Two in Europe. In June 1941, World War Two witnessed what was then the largest land attack in history -‘Operation Barbarossa’. A vast Nazi force used Blitzkrieg to devastating effect on the Russian Army.
Hitler had long made it clear that he hated the Russians and that war between the two countries was inevitable. The Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 had only delayed what Hitler was apparently planning even when the Battle of Britain was at its height. He believed that the Russians were sub-human (the ‘untermenschen’ ) and that they had no right to live where they did. That they were East European was compounded by the fact that Russia was communist and led by Joseph Stalin. Hitler hated communism and Stalin. Hitler wanted all the land in Eastern Europe to be given to Germans as they, Hitler believed, could farm it properly while East Europeans could not. Also many Jews lived in Russia (also known as the USSR at this time) and Hitler wanted them exterminated.
In August 1939, Hitler and Russia had signed a treaty of non-aggression which was meant to last for 10 years. However, for both countries the treaty was merely to buy time to get their armies into shape before one attacked the other. Hitler wished to stabilise his western frontier before turning east. Stalin desperately needed to reform his army after the 1930’s putches when his senior officers had been effectively wiped out either by imprisonment or execution. In June 1941 Operation Barbarossa took place – a massive attack by the Germans on Russia. Hitler’s senior commanders had advised that the bulk of the German attack should be concentrated on Moscow.
Two smaller armies would target Leningrad and Stalingrad and engage the enemy. These two armies would then be helped by the troops in the main bulk once Moscow had surrendered. They felt that once the heart of the nation had been cut out, the rest of the country would fall. Hitler would not have this. He did not believe that the Russian army was a match for the Wehrmacht and decided on three equal forces attacking Moscow, Leningrad and Stalingrad. As always, he got his way. The German attack on Russia involved: 3 million soldiers, 3580 tanks, 7184 artillery guns, 1830 planes 750,000 horses The Russian army collapsed under this onslaught and the attack was initially incredibly successful. Moscow was nearly reached, Leningrad was surrounded and the oil fields in the south were swiftly approached. But it had one main failing and that was created by Hitler himself. As the Russians pulled back (retreated) they destroyed anything that might be of use to the German army as it advanced – bridges, railways, buildings etc. and poisoned water supplies. This policy was known as “scorched earth” and it was not expected by the Germans and severely hindered their armies.
The supply lines of the German army stretched from Germany through Poland and into Russia itself – a huge distance to defend and control. These supply lines were attacked by guerrillas called partisans who did a considerable amount of damage to the German army and caused major shortages. The winter of 1941-42 was one of the worst in recorded history. Daily temperatures fell to 40 degrees below zero. German soldiers had not been issued with warm winter clothing as Hitler believed that the invasion would be over by the winter. Soldiers froze to death in their sleep, diesel froze in fuel tanks and food was in very short supply. Russian soldiers had been issued with winter clothing and did not suffer as badly as their German enemies.
The defeat of an entire German army at Stalingrad was a disaster for the Germans and some historians consider this battle the turning point of World War Two because the German army could now only go in one direction and that was back to Germany. However, while the army was fighting the Russian army, soldiers from the SS Einsatzgruppen murdered hundreds of thousands of civilians. This was all part of Hitler’s plan to get rid of ‘sub-humans’ from Europe. It is thought that as many as 20 million Russians died during the war. The slaughter was so great that Himmler believed that the policy of shooting civilians might disturbed those doing the killing. A direct result of this was the order to find a quicker way of murdering the people of Russia and the idea of death factories developed from this which lead to the Holocaust.
However, from a military point of view, the defeat of the Germans by the Russians was vital to the Allies overall victory in Europe. Over two-thirds of the German army was in the Russian war and its defeat meant that the Allies in the west (GB, France and USA) had more chance of success against a smaller force. Winston Churchill stated that it was the Russians who “tore the heart out of the German army. ” What was the war like for the people in Russia and for the German soldiers? From a German soldier who fought in Russia : “Do you know how we behaved to the civilians? We behaved like devils out of Hell. We left those poor villagers to starve to death, thousands and thousands of them. How can you win a war in this way?
We shoot villagers on the slightest excuse. Just stick them up against a wall. We order the whole village out to watch. It’s a vicious circle. We hate them and they hate us, and on and on it goes, everyone getting more inhuman. The civilians were all ready to look on us as saviours. They had had years of oppression from the communists. What did we do? Turn into slaves under Hitler. If the Russians should ever pay back one half of what we have done, you won’t smile or sing again. We were quartered (living) in a house outside the town. Our dwelling for the night was a wooden house occupied by a Russian family of five children and an old grandmother. We were bitten by fleas all night. We pened our tins and made coffee, sharing what we had with the children and the old woman.
The man of the house was a soldier and the mother had been taken away to dig trenches. The children all had protruding bellies of long-term malnutrition. The reality is that after 22 years of Communist rule, a salted fish is the height of luxury. How this country depresses me. ” From a soldier who fought in southern Russia : “I watched my mother and father die. I knew perfectly well that they were starving. But I wanted their bread more than I wanted them to stay alive. And they knew that. That’s what I remember about the blockade (of Leningrad): that feeling that you wanted your parents to die because you wanted their bread. Daily rationing quotas for the people of Leningrad in November 1941 Labourer Child of Eight Bread 252g 128g Fat 19g 17g Meat 49g 14g Cereals 49g 39g Sugar 49g 39g Factor 1: Communism and Capitalism
One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. A speech by President Truman of the US (1947) Read Waugh and Wright page 10 1. Complete the following table to explain the differences between the two political systems [ideologies]: Communism Capitalism Political System Only one political party – the communist party – No choice, Unable toSeveral Parties – voters may choose and change their change their government. government Economic ideas NO private industries or businesses, NO private profit, ALL industry Most industry and businesses privately owned. and businesses owned by the state for the benefit of everyone. State intervention Censorship of media, State run economy , no choice in a government. NO real state intervention, free market Freedoms NO FREEDOM Freedom of speech, freedom to watch, read, listen to whatever you want. Freedom to own your own business 2. What was meant by the term ‘Cold War’? Read Waugh and Wright pages 8-9 Answer: The Cold War was a phrase used to describe the rivalry and tension between the Superpowers- USA and USSR after 1945. The Cold War had several defining features… Now add some brief detail about the following aspects: Different ideologies
Capitalism is a way of life that you are free to do as you wish but communism, you are kept to strictlawsEconomic rivalry In Capitalism you are free to own your own business but in Communism all businesses aremonitored by the statePropaganda
Both sides used propaganda to create the worst possible image of the other sideArms Race Each side wanted more weapons and newer technologies than the otherSpace race
At first it was only to launch the first satellite, then the first man in space and finally first man onthe moonSpying Both sides spied on each other. This was to find out any military developments3. What was meant by the term ‘Superpower’? Read Waugh and Wright page 9 Now have a go at a definition yourself:
A super power is a country or an group of countries (Empire) that is very powerful and they havethe best economies and have the most advanced technologies and weapons like the atomic bomb,missiles, etc.Factor 2: Rivalry before 1945 Read Waugh and Wright pages 10-15 During the 1920s and 1930s US and Soviet contact with each other was limited. However both sides viewed each other with suspicion. Though the USA did not feel directly threatened by the USSR there had been ‘red scares’ in America in the early 1920s- Americans feared that immigrants from Russia and Eastern Europe might bring with them socialist ideas and attempt to persuade the American working class to mount a revolution. The origins of McCarthyism predate World War Two! Make notes on the following points of tension: a. The Russian Civil War
The Bolsheviks led by Lenin seized control of the Government and in the following yearsIntroduced Communism to the countryb. British foreign policy [appeasement] before World War Two British foreign policy was to avoid war in Europe at allCostsRussian cartoon comments on Munich c. Rivalry during World War Twod. The Tehran ConferenceExam Technique Part A Question – DESCRIBE Advice: Write about ONE decision or reason or consequence. Write two sentences- one which makes the point and a second which develops it with some factual detail. Describe one decision made by the allies about the war against Germany at the Tehran conference in 1943 (2)
Point: One Decision made by the allies about the war against Germany wasDevelopment:Factor 3: Yalta, Crimea [USSR] 4th-11th February 1945 a. Who were the key figures in the wartime alliance system and what were their aims? Read Waugh and Wright pages 14-15 [pic] 1. Complete the table below explaining each leader’s aims and attitudes at Yalta: [pic] [pic] [pic] Winston Churchill Franklin Delano Roosevelt Joseph Stalin b. The Yalta Meeting: Agreements and Disagreements The aims of the three war leaders were different, both aiming to combine the security of their own country with the ideal of European stability. Stalin wanted to create a buffer of pro-Soviet states to protect the Soviet Union against any potential attack from the West, something which Roosevelt and Churchill were firmly against. Poland, being the largest country in Eastern Europe, was likely to set the pattern for the rest of the region, and it was on this matter that the allies met in February 1945, at Yalta.
Two different political groups had emerged: London Poles Lublin Poles This was the Polish government of 1939 which had spent the war years in This was a ‘government in waiting’. Stalin had established this group of exile in London. They continued to meet despite the fact that Poland was Polish communists in the city of Lublin after its liberation from the Nazis. occupied by the Nazis. Stalin hoped to place the Lublin Poles into government in Warsaw. They were anti-communist, and wanted Poland to remain independent and free from Soviet control. The Red Army was the first to reach Poland, and as it approached in August 1944, Polish resistance fighters had begun an uprising against the German occupying troops in Warsaw, the capital. They counted on the support of the nearby Red Army, but also believed that by taking the initiative they could ensure the leadership of the London Poles. The Red Army did nothing to help and the rebellion was mercilessly crushed by the Germans. 300 000 Poles were killed.
Eventually Warsaw fell to the Russians and by January 1945 Poland had been liberated and the Lublin Poles were placed in control by the USSR. 2. Complete the table below: Source Despite the apparent unity of the allies (see Sources A and B), behind the scenes the West were increasingly suspicious of Stalin (see Source C). Relations deteriorated as Stalin seemed to ignore certain elements of the Yalta Agreement. The high expectations in the West that Stalin would allow democratic governments in Eastern Europe was soon destroyed when 16 leaders of the Polish Resistance were invited from London to hold talks with the Soviet authorities near Warsaw.
They were arrested and never seen again. Source A Source B 3. Who gained most from Yalta?Factor 4: Potsdam, Berlin, 17th July- 2nd August 1945. a. Events before the conference Read Waugh and Wright p16-17 and make notes on the following: 1. What had changed between Yalta and Potsdam? [pic] FOCUS ON:Poland ‘jumps to the left’ Poland in 1939 [marked in bold and dotted] Poland in 1945 [marked in bold and dotted] b. The Potsdam Conference [pic] [pic] [pic] At Potsdam, Truman, less inclined to trust Stalin than Roosevelt had been, also had a secret weapon; Operation Manhattan had been completed and the USA possessed a working atomic bomb. This placed Truman firmly in control of the negotiations: “Truman was a changed man. He told the Russians where they got on and off and generally bossed the whole meeting” (Churchill, writing about the conference later) Atlee Truman Stalin
Using three colours highlight or underline the following: (1) Areas of agreement between the allies; (2) ideas rejected by the West; (3) ideas rejected by Stalin; Exam Technique Part B Question – KEY FEATURES You will need to identify a key feature and develop it with more detail/analysis 1 developed key feature = 4 marks 2 developed key features = 5 marks 3 developed key features = 6 marks A key feature is one of three things: A CAUSE…AN EVENT…A CONSEQUENCE … so do three paragraphs with one of each or two of one and one of another! Remember to number and signpost with the wording of the question.
Use the word BECAUSE. Briefly explain the key features of the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, 1945 (6) Paragraph 1: One cause of the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences was…This meant that…Paragraph 2: A key event of the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences was…This meant that…Paragraph 3: A key consequence of the Yalta and Potsdam Conference was …This meant that…Factor 5: The Development of the Iron Curtain, 1945-8 Read Waugh and Wright page 21-23. As the Red Army liberated much of Eastern Europe, Stalin made sure that in the post-war reorganisation most of these countries would be under direct Soviet influence, or at the very least friendly Communist countries. Step by step he took over Albania, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and East Germany in a process described by the Hungarian Communist Rakosi as ‘slicing salami’, or salami tactics (slowly removing or slicing away all opposition to Communism). Why did Stalin do this?
Source A: The devastated landscape of Stalingrad- Russia suffered greatly as a result of the war. 27 million Russians died. Source B: Stalin speaking in February 1945 Victory means, first of all, that our Soviet social system has won. The Soviet social system has successfully stood the test in the fire of war and it has proved its complete vitality. The Soviet social system has proved to be more capable and more stable than the non-Soviet social system. The Soviet social system is a better form of society than nay non-Soviet social system. Source C: Stalin at Yalta Mr. Churchill has said that for Great Britain the Polish question is one of honour. But for the Russians it is a question of honour and security.
Throughout history Poland has been the corridor of attack on Russia. Source D: Stalin comments on Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech in 1946 It should not be forgotten that the Germans invaded the USSR through Finland, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary. The Germans were able to invade because governments hostile to the USSR existed in these countries. As a result the USSR suffered a loss of life several times greater than Britain and the USA combined. The Soviet Union can not forget the huge sacrifices of the Soviet people. Is it surprising that the Soviet Union is trying to see that governments loyal to the Soviet Union should exist in these countries.
1. Complete the table below. U [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] Factor 6: Winston Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ Speech Nine months after Sir Winston Churchill failed to be re-elected as Britain’s PM, Churchill [with President Truman] traveled on March 5, 1946, to Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri (population of 7,000). Churchill gave his now famous “Iron Curtain speech. Before this speech, the U. S. nd Britain had been concerned with their own post-war economies and had remained extremely grateful for the Soviet Union’s role in ending World War II. It was Churchill’s speech, which he titled “The Sinews of Peace,” that changed the way the democratic West viewed the Communist East. Though many people believe that Churchill coined the phrase “the iron curtain” during this speech, the term had actually been used for decades (including in several earlier letters from Churchill to Truman). Churchill’s use of the phrase gave it wider circulation and made the phrase popularly recognized as the division of Europe into East and West.
1. Why do you think did Churchill’s words contribute to further East-West tension?
2. Annotate the cartoon below to explain its meaning. Exam Technique Part B Question – KEY FEATURES You will need to identify a key feature and develop it with more detail/analysis 1 developed key feature = 4 marks developed key features = 5 marks 3 developed key features = 6 marks Briefly explain the key features of the Iron Curtain. Cause:Event:Consequence:Revision and Overview Effect on relations between the Allies Event 1939 Nazi Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Britain and the USSR are enemies, USA is neutral but leaning towards Britain. 1941 Nazi invasion of USSR The USSR changes from an enemy to an ally against the common threat of Nazi Germany. Little direct co-operation. 1944 ‘Lublin Poles’ set up West suspects USSR of a desire to create buffer zone of puppet Communist states 1944 Warsaw Uprising 1945 Liberation of Poland 1945 Yalta Conference 1945 Failed discussions with Molotov concerning Polish government 1945 Arrest of Polish Resistance leaders 1945 Death of Roosevelt – Truman 1945 US completion of Manhattan Project 1945 Potsdam Conference 1946 Iron Curtain Speech, made by Churchill at Fulton, Missouri Focus on: Learning through Mnemonics:
CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR [memory word: BARE] [pBeliefs: ic[pic] Russia was (3 things) ] [pic] a Communist country, [pic] ruled by a dictator [pic] who cared little about human rights. [pic] America was (3 things) [pic] a capitalist [pic] democracy, [pic] which valued freedom. [pAims: ic[pic] Stalin wanted (2 things) ] [pic] reparations from Germany [pic] a buffer of friendly states. [pic] Britain and the USA [led by President Truman] wanted (2 things) [pic] to help Germany recover [pic] to prevent large areas of Europe from coming under Communist control. [pResentment about history ic[pic] The USSR did not trust Britain and the USA (2 reasons) ] [pic] They had tried to destroy the Russian Revolution in 1918. [pic] Stalin thought they had not helped the USSR enough in WW2. [pic]
Britain and the USA did not trust the USSR (1 reason) [pic] Stalin had signed the Nazi-Soviet pact in 1939. [pEvents ic ] ….. and in case you are wondering: EVENTS (9 events): [pYALTA Conference (4 things) ic[pic] February 1945 ] [pic] Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt agreed to (5 points): [pic] Divide Germany into 4 zones occupied by France, Britain, USA, USSR. [pic] Hold free elections in Eastern European countries. [pic] Give the USSR territory in Manchuria in return for their help against Japan. [pic] Set up the United Nations. [pic] Set up a government of Communists and non Communists in Poland. [pic] On the surface, everything seemed friendly [pic] Tension behind the scenes [pPOTSDAM Conference (4 things) ic[pic] July 1945 ] [pic] At Potsdam the tensions surfaced. [pic]
Stalin, Truman and Atlee agreed to (2 things): [pic] Bring Nazi war criminals to trial. [pic] Divide Germany into 4 occupied zones. [pic] There were also disagreements over (3 things): [pic] Soviet policy in Poland. [pic] The size of German reparations. [pic] Stalin’s demands for a naval base in the Mediterranean. [pSALAMI TACTICS (2 things) ic[pic] 1945–48 ] [pic] ‘Slice-by-slice’, Stalin ensured 7 Eastern European countries had Communist governments. [pic] Albania [pic] (1945) – the Communists took power after the war without opposition [pic] Bulgaria [pic] (1945) – the Communists executed the leaders of all the other parties. [pic] Poland [pic] (1947) – the Communists forced the non-Communist leaders into exile. [pic] Hungary (4 things) [pic] (1947) – Russian troops stayed there. Stalin allowed elections (non-communists won a big majority). The Communists were led by the pro-Russian Rakosi. [pic] Rakosi demanded that groups which opposed him should be banned. [pic] He got control of the police, and arrested his opponents.