Basic Kitchen Organization Food Processing Kitchen (Commissary Kitchen) -In large operations, it is a kitchen for the processing of all vegetables, salads and fruits -Purpose: to wash peel and sanitize and cut all raw products, increase hygienic and sanitary standards of a kitchen, reduce waste Cold/Pantry Kitchen (Garde Manger) -Produces all cold food items – salads, dressings, cold platters, terrines, pates, sushi/sashimi, cheese, fruits,etc. -If there is no in-house butchery, also responsible for processing and portioning all meat, fish and seafood items Butchery In charge of processing and portioning all meat, fish, and seafood -In large operations, it will also produce processed meats and seafood items such as sausages, smoked ham, cooked ham, smoked fish and seafood, etc. Main Kitchen -In charge of producing hot dishes for the various outlets, hot basic sauces for all operations -If there is no banquet kitchen, it will also produce the hot food for banquet and catering functions -May also provide the staff food in certain operations Banquet Kitchen -Generally, is a finishing kitchen – a satellite kitchen for garnishing, final sauces and service -Large operations may have this as a full kitchen
Restaurant Kitchen -Generally, finishing kitchens, except specialty kitchens such as Western Fine Dining, Japanese, Chinese, etc. -Coffee Shop Classified here. Room Service Kitchen -Room service food is generally provided by individual restaurant kitchens -Larger operations have a separate room service kitchen -Offer a la carte items from all their restaurants Staff Canteen -Large operations generally have a small staff canteen -Partly supported by the main kitchen, cold kitchen, and butchery. Pastry and bakery provide desserts and breads.
Pastry Kitchen -In charge of producing all types of cold, warm and frozen desserts (pralines, cookies, sugar work, marzipan work, etc. ) Bakery -In charge of all baking requirements such as breads, crusts and doughs. Kitchen Organization Chart Kitchen Brigade Corporate Chef -Highest position for a chef in a hotel chain or chain of restaurants. -Responsible for overseeing standards in all hotels/restaurants in that chain -Creates new food concept ideas for all hotels or certain regions -Oversees new hotels and renovations Executive Chef (Chef de Cuisine) Administrative and operational responsibility for all daily kitchen operations on one hotel -Ensures that all supply requirements for all operations are in place -Develops and implements new menus, promotions and festivals -Evaluates based on recommendations, promotes or dismisses staff -Directly interacts with banquet and sales and marketing to produce special menus for functions or groups staying in the hotel -Updates the food and beverage director -Responsible for the monthly food cost of his/her department Executive Sous Chef (Working Chef) -Immediate assistant of the EC -Directly supervises all operational activities In charge of certain administrative work such as duty rosters, evaluation of his/her immediate subordinates, coordination for function set ups, or special promotional setups. Sous Chef -Commonly in charge of an outlet kitchen or section -Run directly the day-to-day of outlet operations -Directly coordinate with the Executive Sous-Chef -Responsible for supplies, proper staffing, and food quality -Appraise and interview new staff and recommend promotions and dismissal of staff. Section Chef – Chef de Partie -Sauce Cook – Saucier oPrepares all meat, game, poultry, fish and warm appetizers w/ hot/warm sauces -Broiler Cook – Rotisseur All grilled dishes, roasts, and dishes that are oven roasted or deep-fat fried –A la Carte Cook – Restaurteur oPrepares al a carte dishes -Fish Cook – Poissonier oRelieves the sauce cook from the preparation of fish and seafood dishes -Vegetable Cook – Entremetier oPreparation of soups, vegetables, potatoes, pasta, warm cheese and egg dishes -Pantry Cook – Garde Manger oSupervises all cold food preparations: Salads, cold appetizer, dressings cold sauces, buffet platters and decorations. oIf there is no butchery, bones and portions all meat, game, poultry, and fish oResponsible for monitoring all chillers and freezers Butcher – Boucher de Cuisine oHandles meat, fish and seafood, if they are professionally trained butchers, also prepare processed meats -Swing Chef – Chef Tournant oReliever for the Chefs de Partie and generally an experienced chef -Duty Cook – Chef de Garde oFor restaurants with a split shift – stays on duty during the lean afternoon hours or late evening hours -Dietitian – Dietetcien oAdvisory position – prepares special diet menus and calculates nutritional values for guests with special needs -Demi-Chef oPosition between rank and file and supervisor Stronger cook than a commis, but not experienced enough to be a chef de partie oTakes on supervisory functions of chef de partie in their absence -Staff Cook – Cuisinier pour le personnel oPrepares the meals for the staff if there is a staff kitchen Pastry, Confisserie and Bakery -Pastry Chef – Patissier oPrepares cold, warm and frozen sweet dishes as well as baked items if there is no bakeshop in the operation oSupervises all necessary ingredient requisitions, evaluation, hiring and dismissal of the staff oReports directly to the executive chef, coordinates with the executive-sous chef -Confisseur Prepares all specialties with chocolate and special cookies (petit-fours) oSpecialist in sugar and marzipan work -Chief Baker – Boulanger oResponsible for all bread and dough preparation required by the pastry and kitchen Cooking Methods and Techniques 14 Cooking Methods MethodWhere it’s doneTemperature BlanchingStove Deep-Fat FryerWater: 100°C Oil: 130°C-150°C PoachingStove/OvenStove: 65°C-80°C Oven: 165°C Boiling or SimmeringStoveBoiling: 100°C Simmering: 95°C – 98°C SteamingStove/Steamer100°C – 120°C Deep Fat FryingDeep Fat Fryer170°C – 180°C
Sauteing or Pan-FryingStove165°C – 200°C GrillingGrill240°C – 190°C Gratinate or Au GratinOven/Salamander240°C – 280°C BakingOven130°C – 260°C RoastingOven200°C – 220°C Finishing: 180°C Butter RoastingOvenStart: 140°C Finish: 160°C Braising/GlazingOven Meat Oven Vegetables Start: 200°C Cook: 160°C – 180°C Start: 140°C Finish: 160°C Glazing VegetablesStoveCook: 95°C – 98°C StewingStove95°C – 98°C Blanching -Cooking method used to pre-cook, cook or sanitize an ingredient for another cooking method or for preservation oAlternative method for blanching in hot water is steaming Method – can either be starting with cold or hot water or in oil -Why do we blanch: oTo clean and sanitize oTo destroy enzymes oTo prevent ingredients from sticking oTo improve the color of ingredients oTo pre-cook ingredients for another method oTo pre-cook an ingredient for preserving Poaching -For cooking tender ingredients which are high in protein at a low temperature (65°C – 80°C) -Where do we poach: oOn the stove, in liquid oOn the stove, in a water bath oIn the oven, in a water bath oIn a low/high pressure steamer in -How do we poach: oPoach, Floating in liquid oPoach in shallow Liquid Poach in a water bath with stirring oPoach in a water bath without stirring -To prevent tender meat parts, fish, egg and recipes containing egg from being over cooked and broken apart Boiling or Simmering -Boiling or simmering starting with cold water with a lid oFor Dried Vegetables, Potatoes and legumes oFor vegetable side dishes and soups (food items which are not delicate and do not change shape) oSo food can further absorb water and tenderize faster -Boiling and simmering without a lid oFor vegetables and starch based recipes, 98°C – 100°C oVegetable side dishes, rice dishes, pasta dishes and eggs To achieve rapid boiling point so that ingredients cook faster without excessive loss of nutrients and flavors -Simmering oFor stocks and soups, 95°C – 98°C oSimmer with out a lid to monitor liquids oStocks and clear soups become cloudy when boiled -Simmering starting with hot water with a lid oFor Meat, poultry, variety meats, fowl oStews, tongue, boiled beef, oThese ingredients don’t need to be monitored as they are stewed and contain sauce oSimmer with a lid to prevent excessive evaporation Steaming -For items that you usually poach, you can also steam Reduced cooking time with heat above 100°C retains flavor, color and nutrients better -Food stays drier and can immediately be used for further processing -Preserves ingredient shape very well as there is no agitation -Different kinds of ingredients can be cooked at the same time without absorbing each others flavor -Disadvantage: there is no liquid to prepare the sauce from Deep-Fat Frying -Meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, potato, fruits, mushrooms, pastries -Done in plant fat (shortening) at 170°C – 180°C -Basic rules in deep fat frying: oUse only heat-resistant and non-foamy oils Ensure proper temperature at 170°C – 180°C and never heat oil above 200°C oIf not in use, turn fryer temperature down to 90°C oNever season with salt or any other seasoning above the deep fat fryer oNever fry fish and pastry items in the same oil than other products oNever cover the deep fat fryer when in use oNever cover deep fat-fried foods as they become soggy oEveryday, filter fryer oil and clean deep fat fryer to remove frying particles which have settled on the bottom of the fryer oNever use oil that foams and causes eye and lung irritation smoke at 180°C Sauteing (Pan Frying) in a Stainless steel pan Use a stainless steel pan to produce pan drippings oSo you can deglaze the pan drippings oAdd flavor and color to the sauce Sauteing (Pan Frying) in a Non-Stick pan -Sauteing meat, vegetables, potatoes, mushrooms, eggs, etc. -Use a non-stick pan when sauteing ingredient that do not need a sauce to be made after. -Can also be done on a flat-top griddle, but like the non-stick pan, you cannot produce any sauce after Grilling and Broiling -For portioned and generally marinated meat, fish, seafood, poultry, vegetables, potato and mushrooms. Ingredients may be wrapped in aluminum oil -Healthy cooking method – fat-free – but it is important not to burn ingredients because this can produce carcinogens Gratinating or Au Gratin -Method used for finishing, food is already generally cooked. -Food is always covered with ingredients that brown well (ex. egg & cream, cheese, batters, sauces, etc. ) -After applying the coating or crust, ingredients are browned under the salamander or in the oven under high upper heat -Eggs, soups, sauces, cheese, fish, seafood, poultry, meat, pasta, vegetables, potatoes and desserts are commonly gratinated -Browning is done for flavor and presentation
Baking -Mainly used in the hot kitchen to bake meat in a dough, crust or w/ savory souffles and savory starts -Mainly used in the pastry and bakery in the production Roasting in the oven -Done with tender and large pieces of meat which are only cut after cooking -Potatoes may also be roasted -Tender meat parts are roasted as the proteins are soft and do not require liquid to tenderize hem -Important that there is enough fat, to prevent drying out Braising in the oven -Food is cooked in a small amount of liquid in the oven or in a pressure cooker -Used for meat and fowl with high connective tissue Generally ingredients are braised whole and cut before serving -Slow cooking method where food is gently cooked in the oven over a long period of time where the product is tenderized Glazing of vegetables -Commonly for root, knob and fruit vegetables, also chest nuts and water chestnuts Glazing of White Meat -For white meat and poultry with low connective tissue -When glazing white meats, the product will have a shiny brown crust and moist, tender meats due to the slow cooking process
Stewing meat on the stove -Used for pre-cut meat or poultry with high connective tissue -Generally stewed with a large amount of liquid -Usually national recipes of countries, with many variations -Onions usually an ingredient, it is important to properly glaze them so they release the juices which become syrupy and eventually turn brownish Stewing of fruits and vegetables -Usually vegetables from the fruit vegetable family -Generally used to make compotes, fruit puree or fruit sauce