Answer to essay-200 words minimum (mayfdez)

You have to write an answer based on this writing, a minimum of 200 words. You need to add references and quotes, do not use the same references that appear in the writing.

Irish people follow the unit of the nuclear family, which is the one that plays a primary role in their lives. The extended families are also an important part of Irish society. The family remains to be fundamentally important to individuals. The personal connection that is shared by family members, and the support that is received from each other is valued. An inequality dimension exists in social groups as defined by the status of one’s socio-economic, age, and gender is the ill-health experience and healthcare services access. There exists an interest in the inequalities experienced in ill health among ethnic groups, which are a minority, notes that the experiences and the lack of understanding of health vary across cultures and times (O’Rourke & Walsh 2015).
    However, religion and spirituality among the Irish minority ethnic groups also contribute to the outcomes of health. Despite focusing on health inequalities cultural explanations, there is a propensity of treating culture and relating it to health as an individual characteristic response to the behavior of individuals instead of taking culture as a social level that is dynamic and shared. The Irish people are influenced by their cultural experiences and diverse background concerning health behaviors (Purnell, 2015). Irish speak the Goidelic language of the European family. A few people only speak Irish in the Irish population. They, however, enjoy the status of their constitution as the Republic of Ireland language. Another example of a sociocultural variable is religion, whereby the largest population is Roman Catholic. The church is a strong pillar of society and the nation’s politics.
The family is considered to be the most important aspect of the life of Italian people. The family is the one that provides both the economic and emotional support to the individuals forming a basis of their social circles (Vollero et al. 2018) note that Italian families’ organization is smaller in size due to the declined fertility rate. However, family dynamics have currently being changed as a result of the fast-economic pace witnessed in the 21st century. However, less contact time has been recorded for the Italian extended families, although their relationships help them remain extremely close. The Italian culture stands for deep respect for the members of the family. Senior family members are deeply dedicated to their children with their care coming with the expectations that their children will assist them later in life at their old age. On health statistics, Italy has recorded a lower mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure notes that smoking and obesity are mostly in men, and there exists a low mortality rate as a result of heart and respiratory disease (Purnell, 2015).
 The rates of Thalassaemia are higher among the Italian population. Mortality rates from diabetes are also very high. There exist traditional health concepts in Italy which come from humoral medicine. Except for the unskilled laborers in Italy, the community’s attitude and knowledge about health issues are very different from the mainstream. Among the socio-cultural variables among the Italians is a language with their official language being Italian, although their first language is always spoken at a local dialect (Vollero et al. 2018). It becomes hard for the elderly population and that of migrants who are uneducated to speak fluent standard language in a correct way since not all people in Italy have an opportunity to learn English.  Also, the Italian people’s lifestyle is a risk factor that often presents itself in Italians as a result of their low patterns of exercise. The main problems they experience include issues of overweight and smoking among Italian men.
Family among the people of Puerto Rican forms the foundation of their social structure. They have got close family connections emphasizing the need for the well- being of a family. The interactions that exist between family members are expected to be courteous, considerate, and honorable. Among the Puerto Rican, the family honor is important and highly valued for the extended family. The organization of their families follows a modified, extended family system, which is the support system for the generations to come. Most of the challenges faced by poor Puerto Ricans have got their compounds from the traditions. Puerto Ricans use “folk medicine” to get healed. (Burgaleta, 2019) notes that the Puerto Ricans have some suspicion of scientific medical care, and thus, they find general health services as limited health horizons, unlike other ethnic groups. However, spiritualism, which is a cultural phenomenon, retards Puerto Ricans’ health status. They consider illness to be a possession of evil spirits consulting treatment medium rather than physicians.
They often disregard the advice given by physicians and fails to conform to their theories. It has also been recorded that the theory of male dominance among Puerto Rica people results in sexual promiscuity, venereal diseases, early marriages, breakdown of families, and other health-related problems (Purnell, 2015). The Puerto Ricans are people who overwhelmingly speak Spanish despite the efforts of fostering bilingualism. Spanish is a theory dialect, although African speech also contributes some words in their language. Another social, cultural variable is marriage. Despite a high rate of divorce and increased serial monogamy, there are many wedding ceremonies practiced in a religious way in Puerto Rica since marriage is an important marker of adulthood (Burgaleta, 2019).
References
Burgaleta, C. M. (2019). How an Irish-American Priest Became Puerto Rican of the Year: Joseph P. Fitzpatrick, SJ, and the Puerto Ricans. Journal of Jesuit Studies, 6(4), 676-698.
O’Rourke, B., & Walsh, J. (2015). New speakers of Irish: shifting boundaries across time and space. International journal of the sociology of language, 2015(231), 63-83.
Purnell, L. D. (2015). Transcultural health care: A culturally competent approach. FA Davis.
Vollero, A., Conte, F., Bottoni, G., & Siano, A. (2018). The influence of community factors on the engagement of residents in place promotion: Empirical evidence from an Italian heritage site. International Journal of Tourism Research, 20(1), 88-99.

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