Analyze the Effect of Education on the Development of Countries Education can teach us how to be a real man, how to get along with others in the society and also can make talents to let countries’ power stronger. Education can have significant effects on the development of a country. It is mainly reflected in three aspects. The first is the economic growth, the second is the population and employment in society and the third is stability and fair in politic. In addition, this essay will also show education of different levels has impacts on different aspects of different countries.
Universal education has a significant effect on developing economy growth of countries. Developed educational system is better than undeveloped educational system to economic increase. An example of successful developed educational system can be found in China and India. More than 30 percent population of the world lives in China and India totally, and most of them are still stay in poverty. Facing such a large problem, Chinese government enacted Nine-Year Compulsory Education Policy to improve the quality of primary education, and Indian government provides more educated chances for girls and women.
With more and more people being educated, the economy of two countries increases dramatically. One of the reasons is that educated farmers who can read the agriculture instructions get more skills to farm well, which results in a growth in agricultural productivity (Brown, 2008). These educated farmers know how to water, apply fertilizer more efficiently, and finally they harvest more crops which results in a higher income. Dollar and Gatti’s research (1999) illustrates that increase one percentage point chances for women with secondary education results in a 0. percentage points for a country’s annual per capita increase.
To sum up, it would appear that economic growth and developed education system cannot be separated. The more investment in education system, the more positive influences be reflected in the economy increase. Compared with developed education system, undeveloped educational system has an opposite consequence that is economy decline. Firstly, children who are not educated as well as their children will stay at low class, which is the reason why the gap between poverty and wealth becomes wider.
Naturally, if a country has a large amount of destitute people, the economy is decreasing (Brown, 2008). Next, it is unreasonable for government to pay less attention to education, because there is a close connection between less education, poverty and instability. Nobel Prize-winning economist Amartya said (2008):”Illiteracy and innumeracy are a greater threat to humanity than terrorism. ” That means no education is a source of instability. It is possible that most violence and conflicts are caused by the poor, because they are lacking of food, clothes, fresh water and their homeland.
They do not have enough knowledge to protect themselves and they do not know where they can get justice. Finally they will have to take such violent means to seek their own interests, and it leads to serious consequence, such as the war. The two different countries that conduct different education systems have opposite results in higher education. Mauritius is a small island which is connected with Tanzania surrounded by the Indian Ocean. Numerous nature resources can be made use of by Tanzania, such as gold, gas, diamonds, tin, and coal while Mauritius does not have (Bloom et al. 006).
With these disadvantages, Mauritius government intensifies their efforts to increase the chances for children being educated and the quality of higher education. The UIS cited in Higher Education (2005) suggests that half of the populace in Mauritius are tertiary students, and the number is increasing from 1 per cent in 1985 to 15 per cent now (TFHE cited in Higher Education, 2000). The system also lays a foundation for the primary and secondary education, and the subjects of university are added to meet the needs of students (2005).
In contrast, the government of Tanzania does not pay attention to higher education, and the gap between female students and male students is wider, more male students. The subjects connected with science are not performed well by students. Finally, Mauritius has a high per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of $12,800 and it is still growing dramatically. In contrast, the GDP in Tanzania is lower, no more than $700. Today Mauritius has become a middle-income nation since 1960 while Tanzania is still one of the poorest countries in the world (Bloom, 2005).
It appears that education can help dispose of poverty. If a country has an appetite to be stronger, the government must invest more time and energy in education system. As well as affecting the economy, education also affect on the society. Women’s education, which affects the population growth rate, has strong impact on fertility. Women who have a good education will consider their own targets and will spend more time in achieving the target, which could lead to them having fewer children, and the fertility will be lower. Ethiopia is a dramatic example of this.
Besides Population Reference Bureau (2007) shows that Ethiopian women without education have an average of 6. 1 children. In contrast, women with at least a secondary education have an average of 2. 0 children. Moreover, woman who receives high level education will think over the family’s expenses and social burden. So well educated women know how much will they undertake for a child as a parent. Cleland and Kaufmann (1993) argue that attempting to explain the relationship between education and fertility should pay more attention to distinguishing the determinants of reproductive decision making.
To sum up, women’s education is the emphasis for fertility. Education, which can increase the children’s health and decrease the number of disease, is one of the most important factors for mortality. The population growth rate is fertility plus mortality. Hence both fertility and mortality should be low. Firstly, hungry and malnutrition is important to the health of children. If students are hungry and malnutrition, they will get ill and will result in giving up education in that they have no power and money to study, which will cause negative affects for the society.
Sachs (2008) states that most ill children give up going to school forever because of healthy problem. Furthermore girls who have not been educated appear to have no consciousness about serious diseases, such as HIV and AIDS. Countries such as Brazil and Bangladesh are implementing policies to overcome this problem; such supporting scholarships for girls or stipends to their parents where needed. Girls are inspired spending more time in school and marrying in older age, paying more attention to health care. Finally, both fertility and mortality will be apparently lower; the social problem of population may be alleviated.
The effect of education on employment, which is one of the most important factors in the society, has been becoming stronger and stronger. Employment is associated with individual income, the families’ life quality and the social development. In addition, unemployment can cause hunger, poverty and social problems, such as crime . In China, because of the serious employment situation, there are numerous graduates who are unemployed every year. It seems that if someone has low level education, the opportunity to be employed is quite small.
In contrast, those who achieved high level education will have more chance to be successful and have high salary. Evidence suggests that literate abilities have large economic impacts on individual income and on development of countries (Hanushek and Woessmann, 2007) and that workers’ efficiency are decided by both the time and content of education (Heckman, Layne-Farrar, and Todd 1995; Murnane, Willett, and Levy 1995). However, because most people in European or North American countries focus on high level education, the supply and demand for high-tech skilled workers is imbalanced now.
Williams (2009) states that the demand for skilled workers is greater than the supply. Therefore high-tech education seems to be an opportunity for someone who is illiterate and it may relieve the severe employment situation. Finally, it will have a positive impact on social development. In addition, since politic is based on economy and society, education of different grades could also be thought as one of the main causes which affects politic well. Firstly, universal primary and secondary education can stabilize the society and country, which is the base of the development of a country, especially in African countries.
Basic education offers uneducated child and adult knowledge that can instruct them to contribute to their society and country instead of committing crimes to make a living. According to Brown (2008), the implementation of a school lunch programme in some African countries have kept students staying at school longer, studying to gain a proper knowledge of behaving well but not follow terrorism that does serious harm to countries. Basic education of individuals also keeps people’s life over a good level.
Furthermore, education is an efficient way to narrow the gap between the rich and poor that could lead to the conflict between different classes. Such situation could result in the revolution and leads to the turbulence of the country, which is considered as a serious threaten to societies and countries as well as the terrorism (Sen cited by Brown 2008). Furthermore, education also improves the political environment of countries. Primary and secondary education that can be conducted widely in countries promotes the national quality of countries, which make people have more knowledge and participate in political activities such as elections.
Moreover, women benefit politically from education. Women political status is greatly increased by the different grade of education received. In all ages, in male dominated and traditional communities, girls’ education is considered as unnecessary luxury in that men fear that woman independence would threaten their main position in the political area (Plan 2008). Education on girls and women can ameliorate this unfair situation. The ignorance of educating women has done great harm to some African countries.
World Bank (2008) issued that Human Development Network that the damage of failing to educate girls as boys in 65 “low and middle income and transitional countries” is about 92 billion dollars per year (cited in Plan 2008). Such a shocking number shows that creating a fair political environment will bring countries great good and the vital impacts of education on politics. Not only the universal education but also the tertiary one contributes to the development of politic of countries. Government of both developing and developed countries invests great quantity of expenses in tertiary education.
The research of Yao, John, Shunming and Xiliang (2008) shows that the policy of education of China pays more attention to improving tertiary education. Such policy results in the situation that more and more talented politicians trained and elected from the country. One of other countries which focus on higher education is United States. Statistics shows that 8 out of 10 best universities in the world such as Harvard University and Massachusetts Inst Tech (MIT) come from United States, which means tertiary education of America greatly contributes to cultivating talents who is important to the development of American politics.
Such great effort on improving tertiary education leads to a better consequence than China. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, one of the grandest president of United States, was sent to Groton School where is famous for training political talents. Then he majored politic science in Harvard University, which is the base of his success in political field. More than 10 of the America presidents come from these top universities, which shows the significant contributions tertiary do to the politics of United States. So, different grades of education can greatly promote politic of countries which also pushes the procedure of spreading education.
The more education affects politic the more it promotes education. Universal education has great impacts on the development of countries in three main aspects. Firstly, it promotes the economy of countries worldwide, changing the life of people in poverty and improving the national strength. Secondly, education also contributes to the balance of the population of the world, including fertility and health care of different people, and the employment of countries which are important factors that influences countries’ procedure of development of society.
Finally, different grades of education improve the politic development of countries. It stabilizes countries in poverty through primary and secondary education and improves the political environment through the tertiary one. Therefore, education counts in the development of countries, so improving the education of different levels in order to benefit countries in different aspects is an important issue for people to consider.