Introduction 64th Republic Day of India – January 26, 2013 Republic Day, celebrated on January 26th every year, is one of India’s most important national events. It was on January 26th, 1950 that the constitution of India came into force and India became a truly Sovereign, Democratic and Republic state. On this day India finally enjoyed the freedom of spirit, rule of law and fundamental principle of governance. The patriotic fervor of the Indian people on this day brings the whole country together even in her embedded diversity. Republic Day is a people’s day in a variety of ways:
It’s when regional identity takes a backseat and what matters most is the universal appeal of unity and brotherhood projected by all Indians. The Indian constitution basically stands for the aspirations which ‘the common man of India’ cherishes. Republic Day is a day of the citizen of the country when he is entitled to be ‘all supreme’. Republic Day is celebrated most majestically in the capital, New Delhi, where symbols of the great nation’s military might and cultural wealth are displayed in what is the world’s most impressive parade. All Government buildings are illuminated lending the city the atmosphere of a fairyland.
This day is celebrated with much zeal and pride all across the nation. Republic Day Significance India gained independence on August 15, 1947. But till January 26, 1950, it did not have the proper law of the land for ruling the country. On 26th January, 1950 the constitution of India came into force and India became a nation state with sovereignty and republic sense. Our constitution was formed by the Indian Constituent Assembly. The Indian Constituent Assembly met on December 9, 1946. The Assembly appointed a number of committees to report on the various aspects of the proposed constitution.
The Constituent Assembly had appointed Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as the Chairman to draft the Constitution. The committee finalized the draft with 395 Articles and eight Schedules and was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. The Indian Republic officially came into being on January 26, 1950. January 26 was not some random date picked out of the calendar. It was on this date in 1927, that the Indian National Congress, then fighting its non-violent war for freedom, voted for complete independence as against ‘Dominion Status’.
It was the date when members of the Indian National Congress took the pledge to work towards a ‘Sovereign Democratic Republic’ of India. The Indian Constitution, the longest in the world, now consist of 397 articles and 12 schedules which provides for a single citizenship for the whole of India. It gives the right to vote to all the citizens of 18 years and above, unless they are disqualified. Fundamental rights are guaranteed to the citizens, equality of religion and so on. The Supreme Court, consisting of the Chief Justice of India and other judges, are the guardian of the Constitution.
It stands at the apex of a single integrated judicial system for the whole country. This is where the fundamental rights of the citizens are protected. 26 January 1950 It was on 26 January, 1950 that the constitution of India came into force and India became a Sovereign Democratic Republic. It was on the same day that Dr. Rajendra Prasad took oath as the first President of India. Read here the first speech delivered by Dr. Rajendra Prasad as the President of India on 26th January, 1950. “It is a great day for our country. India has had a long and chequered history; parts of it were cloudy and parts bright and sunlit.
At no period, even during the most glorious eras of which we have record, was this whole country brought under one Constitution and one rule. We have mention of many Republics in our books and our historians have been able to make out a more or less connected and co-ordinated piece out of the incidents and the places which are mentioned in these records. But these Republics were small and tiny and their shape and size was perhaps the same as that of the Greek Republics of that period. We have mention of Kings and Princes, some of whom are described as ‘Chakravarty’, that is, a monarch whose suzerainty was acknowledged by other Princes.
During the British period, while acknowledging the suzerainty of Britain, the Indian Princes continued to carry on the administration of their territories in their own way. It is for the first time today that we have inaugurated a Constitution which extends to the whole of this country and we see the birth of a federal republic having States which have no sovereignty of their own and which are really members and parts of one federation and one administration. His Excellency the Ambassador of the Netherlands has been pleased to refer to the relations and connections of this country with other countries both Eastern and Western.
That relationship, so far as this country is concerned, has always been one of friendliness. Our ancestors carried the message of our teachers far and wide and established cultural ties which have withstood the ravages of time and still subsist while Empires have crumbled and fallen to pieces. Our ties subsist because they were not of iron and steel or even of gold but of the silken cords of the human spirit, India has had to face, on many occasions, assaults and invasions by foreigners and she has very often succumbed. But, there is not a single instance of a military invasion or aggressive war by this country against any other.
It is therefore in the fitness of things and a culmination of our own cultural traditions that we have been able to win our freedom without bloodshed and in a very peaceful manner. The Father of our Nation, Mahatma Gandhi, was not a freak of nature but the physical embodiment and consummation of the progress of that spirit of non-violence which has been our great heritage. We have been able under his matchless leadership, not only to regain our lost freedom but also to establish and strengthen the bonds of friendship with those — and our thanks are due to them for it — against whose policy we have fought and won.
Our Constitution is a democratic instrument seeking to ensure to the individual citizens the freedoms which are so invaluable. India has never prescribed or prosecuted opinion and faith and our philosophy has room as much for a devotee of a personal god, as for an agnostic or an atheist. We shall, therefore, be only implementing in practice under our Constitution what we have inherited from our traditions, namely, freedom of opinion and expression.
Under the new set-up, which we are inaugurating today, we hope to live up to the teachings of our Master and help in our own humble way in the establishment of peace in the world. Our attitude towards all countries is one of utmost friendliness. We have no designs against any one, no ambition to dominate others. Our hope is that others also will have no designs against us. We have had bitter experience of aggression by other countries in the past and can only express the hope that it may not be necessary for us to take any measures even in self-defence.
I know the world today is passing through a most uncertain and anxious period. Two world wars within one generation, with all their devastation and aftermath of suffering and sorrow, have not been able to convince it that a war can never bring about the end of wars. It is, therefore, necessary to seek the end of wars in positive acts of goodness towards all and the world must learn to utilize all its resources for productive and beneficial purposes and not for destruction.
We do venture to think that this country may have a past to play in establishing this goodwill and atmosphere of confidence and co-operation. We have inherited no old enmities. Our republic enters the world stage, therefore, free from pride and prejudice, humbly believing and striving that in international as well as internal affairs our statesmen may be guided by the teachings of the Father of our Nation — tolerance, understanding non-violence and resistance to aggression.
It is in such a country and at such a time that it has pleased the representatives of our people to call me to this high office. You can easily understand my nervousness which arises not only from the tremendousness of the task with which our newly won freedom is confronted but also from a consciousness that I succeed in this sphere of activity, though not in office, one who has played such a conspicuous part not only during the period of strife and struggle but also during the period of constructive activity and active administration.
You know Sri Chakravarty Rajagopalachari and have experience of his incisive intellect, great learning, practical wisdom and sweetness of manners. It has been my privilege to have been associated with him for more than 30 years and although we might have had occasional differences of opinion on some vital matters but never have our personal relations suffered by setback and I feel sure that I shall continue to enjoy the benefit of his protective advice in whatever crises I may have to face.
My nervousness and anxiety are to no small extent countered by a consciousness that I shall be the recipient of fullest confidence from our Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, the Members of the Cabinet and the Legislature and from the people at large. I shall Endeavour my best to earn and deserve that confidence. Let me also hope that this country will be able to win the confidence of other nations and secure such assistance as it may require in times of need. I have great pleasure in responding to the toast which has been proposed. ” Republic Day Celebrations
Date: January 26 (Every Year) Venue: India Gate Highlights: President’s Speech, Parade and Caravans (Jhakiyan) of different states This is one of the most colorful and prestigious national festivals and the presence of dignitaries like the President of India, the Prime Minister of India, Union Ministers and foreign delegates also add to the dignity of the celebration. Celebration of Republic Day is different than Independence Day. The difference in significance marks the variation in the pattern of celebration of these two national days. It is a people’s day.
On Independence Day, the past is recalled whereas, on Republic Day, the pledge is renewed. Independence Day has rhetoric built in the celebration; Republic Day is without speeches. Republic Day is celebrated all over the country at all the administrative units like the capital cities, district headquarters, sub divisions, talukas, and panchayats. The major ceremonies are held at Delhi and the state capitals. The celebration mood lasts for one week. It consists of the ground preparations, rehearsals, the main display which spills over to the ‘Beating of Retreat’ on January 29.
The day has acquired the status of a social celebration in which people participate whole-heartedly. The celebration mosaic is studded with activities. Though the Republic Day Parade is the main ceremony, various activities are held from early morning when prabhat pheris (morning rounds) followed by a homage to Mahatma Gandhi – the Father of Nation. The parade is succeeded by sports events in the afternoon. ‘At Home’ functions at the Raj Bhavan, at the District Magistrate’s and at the SDM’s are followed by illumination of public buildings at the provincial capitals and administrative headquarters.
The celebrations are universal, total and participatory in which children also take part in a big way. Variations in culture are displayed through colourful attires and folk dances. The parades held on the day traditionally predominates a touch of modernity reflected in the display of might, technology and capabilities of growth in various sectors. The parades symbolizes the might; the tableaux reflects the cultural motifs. Rules for Flag Hoisting in India “A flag is a necessity for all nations. Millions have died for it. It is no doubt a kind of idolatry which would be a sin to destroy.
For, a flag represents an Ideal The unfurling of the Union Jack evokes in the English breast sentiments whose strength it is difficult to measure. The Stars and Stripes mean a world to the Americans. The Star and the Crescent will call forth the best bravery in Islam. ” “It will be necessary for us Indians Muslims, Christians Jews, Parsis, and all others to whom India is their home-to recognize a common flag to live and to die for. ” ~ Mahatma Gandhi The Indian Flag is a national symbol and it is respected by every citizen of India. There are certain points to remember while hoisting the Indian Flag. The Indian Flag should be hoisted with the saffron colour on the top. * There should be no flag or emblem either above the National Flag or on its right. * If there are multiple flags to be hoisted, they must be placed to the left of the Indian Flag. * During the hoisting of the National Flag, all present must stand to give respect and honour its glory. * The flag cannot be intentionally allowed to touch the ground or the floor or trail in water. It cannot be draped over the hood, top, and sides or back of vehicles, trains, boats or aircraft. * The flag cannot be used for communal gains, drapery, or clothes. The National Flag should be flown from sunrise to sunset, irrespective of the weather. It must be taken out before sunset. Republic Day Parade The main celebrations of Republic Day are held in the form of a colourful parade near India Gate in Delhi. The parade showcasing India’s military might and cultural diversity covers a 8 km route, starting from the Rashtrapati Bhavan through the picturesque Rajpath down to India Gate before winding up at the historic Red Fort in Old Delhi. The events of the day begin with the Prime Minister laying a wreath at the Amar Jawan Jyoti – India Gate.
He then drives up to the central enclosure and awaits the arrival of the President and a Chief Guest of the occasion who is normally a Head of other Country. On his arrival the Hon’ble President meets the dignitaries present and unfurls the National Flag. Following this the National Anthem is played with a 21-gun salute to the National Flag. After this a brief investiture ceremony takes place during which the President presents India’s top gallantry awards, the Param Veer Chakra, the Veer Chakra and the Maha Veer Chakra to the outstanding soldiers from the defense services.
After this, four helicopters from the armed forces fly past the parade area showering rose petals on the audience. Each chopper carries a flag – the first being the Indian flag and the other three the flags of the Army, the Navy, and the Indian Air Force. The march past begins immediately after the fly past. The President, as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, takes the salute of the mechanised, mounted and marching contingents of the Army, Air Force, Navy, Paramilitary forces, Police and the National Cadet Corps.
After the march past comes the cultural extravaganza consisting of floats presented by the various states and performances by school children. After the floats, the bravery awards winning children from all over the country enter on elephants. A spectacular fly-past by Air Force and Naval aircraft rounds off this not-to-be missed experience. The parade is followed by a pageant of spectacular displays from the different states of the country. These moving exhibits depict scenes of activities of people in those states and the music and songs of that particular state accompany each display.
Each display brings out the diversity and richness of the culture of India and the whole show lends a festive air to the occasion. No other country in the world can parade so many ethnically different people in splendid uniforms as India’s Armed Forces. But they are all united in their proven loyalty to the Government elected by the people and in their proud traditions and legendary gallantry. Republic Day Chief Guests Since 1950, India has been inviting head of state or government of another country as the state guest of honor for Republic Day celebrations and parade in New Delhi.
Selecting the Chief guests for the Republic Day has more than mere ceremonial reasons. The choice of chief guest every year is dictated by a number of reasons such as strategic and diplomatic, business interest and international geo-politics. Recently India has been inviting dignitaries from South East Asia with the latest being Thailand’s first women Prime Minister, Yingluck Shinawatra. Sultan of Oman Qaboos bin Said Al Said will be the chief guest for Republic Day Celebrations 2013 Here is the list of Chief Guests invited as the Guest of Honor for the Republic Day ceremony held in Delhi. 950 President Sukarno from Indonesia 1954 King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck of Bhutan 1955 Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammad of Pakistan 1958 Marshall Ye Jianying of People’s Republic of China 1960 President Kliment Voroshilov of Soviet Union 1961 Queen Elizabeth II from United Kingdom 1963 King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia 1965 Food and Agriculture Minister Rana Abdul Hamid of Pakistan 1968 Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin of Soviet Union President Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia 1969 Prime Minister of Bulgaria Todor Zhivkov of Bulgaria 1971 President Julius Nyerere of Tanzania 972 Prime Minister Seewoosagur Ramgoolam of Mauritius 1973 President Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire 1974 President Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia 1975 President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia 1976 Prime Minister Jacques Chirac of France 1977 First Secretary Edward Gierek of Poland 1978 President Patrick Hillery of Ireland 1979 Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser of Australia 1980 President Valery Giscard d’Estaing of France 1981 President Jose Lopez Portillo of Mexico 1982 King Juan Carlos I of Spain 1983 President Shehu Shagari of Nigeria 1984 King Jigme Singye Wangchuck of Bhutan 985 President Raul Alfonsin of Argentina 1986 Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou of Greece 1987 President Alan Garcia of Peru 1988 President Junius Jayewardene of Sri Lanka 1989 General Secretary Nguyen Van Linh of Vietnam 1990 Prime Minister Anerood Jugnauth of Mauritius 1991 President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom of Maldives 1992 President Mario Soares of Portugal 1993 Prime Minister John Major of United Kingdom 1994 Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong of Singapore 1995 President Nelson Mandela of South Africa 1996 President Dr. Fernando Henrique Cardoso of Brazil 997 Prime Minister Basdeo Panday of Trinidad and Tobago 1998 President Jacques Chirac of France 1999 King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev of Nepal 2000 President Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria 2001 President Abdelaziz Bouteflika of Algeria 2002 President Cassam Uteem of Mauritius 2003 President Mohammed Khatami of Iran 2004 President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva of Brazil 2005 King Jigme Singye Wangchuck of Bhutan 2006 King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud of Saudi Arabia 2007 President Vladimir Putin of Russia 2008 President Nicolas Sarkozy of France 009 President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan 2010 President Lee Myung Bak of Republic of Korea 2011 P resident Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of Indonesia 2012 Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra of Thailand 2013 Sultan of Oman Qaboos bin Said Al Said Republic Day Awards The national awards for bravery or the National Bravery Awards was started in 1957 by the Indian Council for Child Welfare (ICCW) to recognize and honor children who have performed outstanding deeds of bravery and selfless sacrifice. Every year the ICCW confers these awards to children below 16 years of age.
The awards are announced on November 14 (Children’s Day) and the Prime Minister presents the awards on the eve of Republic Day. The awardees receive a medal, certificate and cash as a token of their indispensable courage. These children also take part in the Republic Day Parade atop an elephant. In addition to this, some of them are also granted financial assistance to complete their schooling and professional courses such as medical and engineering (under the Indira Gandhi scholarship scheme). Assistance is also provided to some till they complete their graduation.
The Central and State government departments, Panchayats, Zila Parishads, State and Union Territory councils for Child Welfare and also the school authorities have the responsibility of acknowledging the applications for the bravery award. The selection is made by a committee constituted by the ICCW, comprising of representatives from the Secretariats of the President and the Vice-President, various ministries, as well as the Central Social Welfare Board, police, All India Radio, Doordarshan and leading NGOs such as the National Bal Bhavan, SOS, Children’s Villages of India, R K Mission and experienced ICCW members.
In 1978, the Indian Council for Child Welfare instituted two bravery awards for children under the age of 16, the Sanjay Chopra Award and the Geeta Chopra Award, given each year along with the National Bravery Award. Bravery Awards 2013 The list of Bravery Award winners for the year 2013 was announced by the ICCW on January 18th, 2013. The award is to be conferred to 22 brave children from all parts of the country, the youngest recipient being 7-year-old Koroungamba Kuman from Manipur.
The coveted ‘Bharat Award’ will be awarded to Tarang Atulbhai Mistry from Gujarat and 11-year-old Gajendra Ram from Chhattisgarh is being felicitated with ‘Sanjay Chopra’ award. NameAwardState Renu Geeta Chopra AwardDelhi Gajendra Ram Sanjay Chopra AwardChhattisgarh Tarang Atulbhai MistryBharat AwardGujarat Vijay Kumar SainikBapu Gaidhani AwardUttar Pradesh Akanksha GauteBapu Gaidhani AwardChhattisgarh Hali Raghunath BarafBapu Gaidhani AwardMaharashtra RamdintharaNational Bravery AwardsMizoram Devansh TiwariNational Bravery AwardsChhattisgarh Mukesh NishadNational Bravery AwardsChhattisgarh
LalrinhluaNational Bravery AwardsMizoram E. SuganthanNational Bravery AwardsTamil Nadu Ramith. K,National Bravery AwardsKerala Mebin CyriacNational Bravery AwardsKerala Vishnu M. V. National Bravery AwardsKerala Koroungamba KumanNational Bravery AwardsManipur Sameep Anil PanditNational Bravery AwardsMaharashtra Viswendra LohknaNational Bravery AwardsUttar Pradesh Satendra LohkanaNational Bravery AwardsUttar Pradesh Pawan Kumar KanaujiyaNational Bravery AwardsUttar Pradesh Stripleaseman MylliemNational Bravery AwardsMeghalaya Sapna Kumari MeenaNational Bravery AwardsRajasthan Suhail K. M.
National Bravery AwardsKarnataka Gallantry Awards Soldiers, who have performed outstanding deeds of bravery and selfless sacrifice, are awarded the bravery medals, Param Vir Chakra, Vir Chakra and Maha Vir Chakra. Each defense service in India have there own set of gallantry awards that are awarded to the soldiers who have shown courage and valor. Beating Retreat After three days of Republic Day parade, a moving ceremony known as “Beating Retreat” is held at the Vijay Chowk in New Delhi. This ceremony revives an ancient war custom according to which troops used to stop fighting at sunset.
Bugles announcing the sunset would sound in the battlefield. As soon as soldiers heard these bugles they would stand still in the battlefield and war would be stopped for the day. This ceremony held on the 29th of January every year, marks the formal end of the Republic Day celebrations. The ceremony opens with a parade by selected contingents of the armed forces set to scintillating performances by the various armed forces bands. The parade climaxes with all the bands playing in unison. As the bands fall silent, a lone trumpeter picks up the moving tune ‘Siki a mole’.
After this performance the hymn ‘Abide with me’ is played by the Massed Bands. This hymn, said to be Mahatma Gandhi’s favourite, is a permanent feature of the ceremony. At exactly 6 pm, the buglers sound the retreat and the National Flag is lowered to the National Anthem bringing the Republic Day celebrations to a formal end. One by one, the camels and the riders who stand stone-like throughout against the backdrop of the sky, move away from the background. Just after this comes the most visually appealing part of the show. With the click of a button, a thousand bulbs light up the Rashtrapati Bhavan and adjoining buildings.
Surely a fitting end to the annual celebrations of the Indian republic! National Anthem of India The National Anthem of India is ‘Jana Gana Mana’ which was written and composed by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It was first sung at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress on December 27, 1911. It was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on January 24, 1950. THE NATIONAL ANTHEM OF INDIA Jana gana mana adhinayaka jaya he Bharata bhagya vidhata Punjaba Sind Gujarata Maratha Dravida Utkala Banga Vindhya Himachala Yamuna Ganga Ucchala jaladhi taranga
Tava subha name jage Tava subha asisa mage Gahe tava jaya gatha Jana gana mangala dayaka jaya he Bharata bhagya vidhata Jaya he jaya he jaya he Jaya jaya jaya jaya he! Translation into English Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people, Dispenser of India’s destiny. Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha, Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal; It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea. They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise. The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India’s destiny. Victory, victory, victory, Victory to thee. Preamble to the Constitution of India Just as every book we read comes with a preface, which gives us a brief outline and the central theme of that book, so is the case with the preamble of Indian Constitution. The Preamble being the preface of the constitution lays down the basic makeup of the Constitution. The Indian Preamble highlights the type of society and government it wishes India and Indians to have. For this, it has tried to incorporate the objectives of the Constitution in a nutshell.
The Preamble of the constitution has used the noblest words which symbolize the highest principles and values of human creativity and experience. World over, the Preamble of the Indian Constitution is regarded highly for its originality in wholeness of approach in dealing with so many subjects. The Indian preamble wishes India to be a country where there should be no high class and low class of citizens; an India in which all communities will co-exist in perfect harmony. Interestingly, the Indian Constitution is the longest of all the constitutions by any other nation.
PREAMBLE WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, are having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
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